[6] **viXra:1807.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-30 02:19:14*

**Authors:** Antonio Puccini

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

With the neutronization protons(Ps) and electrons(es) fuse together to form neutrons(Ns) and release electronic neutrinos(e):
e + P N + e(1).
This is possible because the electron in the neutronization equation is equipped with a very high energy, just provided by a collapsing star, or by a neutron star. In those extreme conditions electrons become relativistic, since they acquire a 200MeV energy, so as to fill the conspicuous energy gap between N and P.
However, Eq.(1) appears incomplete because it does not explain the ex abrupto appearance of the e. One may wonder: how was it produced?
As it is known matter and antimatter particles are always produced as a couple. Where is the antiparticle of e, i.e. the ῡe, not represented in Eq.(1)?
In our opinion, Eq.(1) implies some intermediate steps not represented.
A phenomenon associated with neutronization is photoannihilation, characterized by the materialization of the electromagnetic radiation(γ), with consequent production of pairs, such as:
γ ῡe + e(2).
If we enter Eq.(2) in Eq.(1), we have:
e+ P e + P + γ e + P + ῡe + e N + e(3),
that is:e + P + ῡe + e ↔ N + e(4),
i.e.:e + P + ῡe ↔ N(5).
From Eq.(5) it emerges that to N corresponds a compound of 3 particles, i.e. a multiplet:[e, P, ῡe]. This is in agreement with Spin Statistics, as well as with Quantum Mechanics, since the relativistic electron has an energy>140MeV. Furthermore, let's try to read Eq.(5) in reverse:
N e + P + ῡe(6).
It is surprising: Eq.(6) shows exactly the decay products of N, corresponding precisely to the famous Fermi equation describing the N decay, providing a counter-test to Eq.(5)

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1807.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-24 18:54:44*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility to construct spacetime structures for electromagnetic and matter waves in which the universal speed in relativity plays a decisive role. Based on our recent works on physical interactions that are associated with the geometric and topological structures of the spatiotemporal manifold, we suggest that when the spatiotemporal manifold decomposes n-cells at each point on the manifold then it can be regarded as a fiber bundle where the base space is the spatiotemporal manifold and the fiber is the n-cells. We will discuss the case when the n-cells are n-spheres therefore the total spatiotemporal continuum will be regarded as an n-sphere bundle, in particular when n equals 6. We will show that the universal speed is the speed at which there is a conversion between the temporal and spatial submanifolds of the spatiotemporal manifold. Since in both Maxwell and Dirac fields there is a conversion between the temporal and spatial forms of matter and since temporal matter is assumed to be associated with the temporal submanifold of the spatiotemporal manifold and spatial matter with the spatial submanifold, therefore in order to describe the conversion of matter we need to formulate the corresponding conversion between the spatial and temporal submanifolds. As a result, the 6-sphere fibers form the required medium for the electromagnetic and matter waves. From the description of waves in terms of spacetime structures it is reasonable to state that both matter and electromagnetic waves are oscillations of the intrinsic geometric structures of the total spatiotemporal manifold.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1807.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-25 07:15:13*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 3 pages, written in english

We define a generalization of the Seiberg-Witten equations for two spinors and connections linked by functions. We show compacity of the so defined moduli spaces.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3] **viXra:1807.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-18 10:57:21*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 5 Pages. misspellings corrected

It was shown in [1] that gravitational interaction can be expressed as an algebraic quadratic invariant form of energies. This allows the decomposition of the entire gravitational system into the sum of squares of energies of its composing particles. Still then, we ran into serious problems, when it came to figure out the Hamiltonian and calculate the total energy of the system from that. (Equivalently put, the algebraic invariant above is not a Hamiltonian one.) The problem is: What goes wrong? This is what this article is about, and the answer is very simple.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[2] **viXra:1807.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-07 02:22:40*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work we extend our discussions on the possibility to classify geometric interactions to temporal manifolds according to the dimensions of decomposed submanifolds n-cells. A temporal manifold is a differentiable manifold which is accompanied a spatial manifold to form a spatiotemporal manifold which represents an elementary particle and can be assumed to have the mathematical structure of a CW complex. As in the case of spatial manifolds, a temporal differentiable manifold can also be assumed to decompose n-cells. The decomposed temporal n-cells will also be identified with force carriers for physical interactions. For the case of temporal differentiable manifolds of dimension three, there are also four different types of geometric interactions associated with 0-cells, 1-cells, 2-cells and 3-cells. We also discuss the possible dynamics from these geometric interactions in terms of Newtonian spatiotemporal mechanics. In particular we show that, unlike spatial manifolds in which the contact forces that are associated with the decomposition of 0-cells would render mass points to join to form elementary particles, the forces that are associated with the decomposition of temporal 0-cells are short-lived therefore temporal matter cannot form stable physical objects as in the case of mass points in spatial continuum. We also discuss in more details the case of geometric interactions that are associated with the decomposition of 3-cells from a spatiotemporal differentiable manifold and show that the physical interactions that are associated with the evolution of the geometric processes can be formulated in terms of general relativity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1807.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-03 08:04:18*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The Big Bang is not a stand-alone beginning of the universe that came to life with the beginning of time. Originally, or so to say more fundamental, the Big Bang-universe is emergent. The existence of the Big Bang-universe is due to a ‘Rotating Torus Hologram-Universe’ (RTHU). We actually live in a RTHU. What we observe as a stand-alone Big Bang is by residue the CMB, but in fact it is an information-field of the RTHU. This is the main result of my theoretical research wherein the cognition of the origin of the universe is extended to refined time and a subdivision of the quantum-unit. I call this new perception Double Torus Theory (DTT). More theoretical evidence shows the cause why matter is dominant over anti-matter, why virtual particles go in and out of vacuum, but most of all that the total CMB rotates with 29 km/h.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics