[13] **viXra:1006.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Carey R Carlson

**Comments:** 16 pages.

Quantum theory is reconstructed using standalone causal sets. The frequency ratios
inherent in causal sets are used to define energy-ratios, implicating the causal link as the
quantum of action. Space-time and its particle-like sequences are then constructed from
causal links. A 4-D time-lattice structure is defined and then used to model neutrinos and
electron clouds, which together constitute a 4-D manifold. A 6-D time-lattice is used to
model the nucleons. The integration of the nucleus with its electron cloud affords
calculation of the mass-ratio of the proton (or the neutron) with respect to the electron.
Arrow diagrams, along with several ball-and-stick models, are used to streamline the
presentation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[12] **viXra:1006.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Fredy Zypman

**Comments:**
2 pages

Formulas connecting toroidal functions and elliptical functions are useful in
various areas of physics. In solving a problem in electrostatics we run across
an error in the Handbook of mathematical functions of Abramowitz and
Stegun. In this paper we report the details.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11] **viXra:1006.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:36:44*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This appendix contains basic facts about CP_{2} as a symmetric space and Kähler manifold. The
coding of the standard model symmetries to the geometry of CP_{2}, the physical interpretation of
the induced spinor connection in terms of electro-weak gauge potentials, and basic facts about
induced gauge fields are discussed

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10] **viXra:1006.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:40:48*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The original justification for the hierarchy of Planck constants came from the indications that
Planck constant could have large values in both astrophysical systems involving dark matter and
also in biology. The realization of the hierarchy in terms of the singular coverings and possibly also
factor spaces of CD and CP_{2} emerged from consistency conditions. It however seems that TGD
actually predicts this hierarchy of covering spaces. The extreme non-linearity of the field equations
defined by Kähler action means that the correspondence between canonical momentum densities
and time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates is 1-to-many. This leads naturally to the
introduction of the covering space of CD x CP_{2}, where CD denotes causal diamond defined as
intersection of future and past directed light-cones.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9] **viXra:1006.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:49:56*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The notion of electric magnetic duality emerged already two decades ago in the attempts to
formulate the Kähler geometry of the "world of classical worlds". Quite recently a considerable
step of progress took place in the understanding of this notion. This concept leads to the
identification of the physical particles as string like objects defined by magnetic charged wormhole
throats connected by magnetic
ux tubes. The second end of the string contains particle having
electroweak isospin neutralizing that of elementary fermion and the size scale of the string is
electro-weak scale would be in question. Hence the screening of electro-weak force takes place
via weak confinement. This picture generalizes to magnetic color confinement. Electric-magnetic
duality leads also to a detailed understanding of how TGD reduces to almost topological quantum
field theory. A surprising outcome is the necessity to replace CP_{2} Kähler form in Kähler action
with its sum with S^{2} Kähler form.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8] **viXra:1006.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:53:06*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Generalized Feynman diagrams have become the central notion of quantum TGD and one might even say that space-time surfaces can be identified as generalized Feynman diagrams. The challenge is to assign a precise mathematical content for this notion, show their mathematical existence, and develop a machinery for calculating them. Zero energy ontology has led to a dramatic progress in the understanding of generalized Feynman diagrams at the level of fermionic degrees of freedom. In particular, manifest finiteness in these degrees of freedom follows trivially from the basic identifications as does also unitarity and non-trivial coupling constant evolution. There are however several formidable looking challenges left.

- One should perform the functional integral over WCW degrees of freedom for fixed values of on mass shell momenta appearing in the internal lines. After this one must perform integral or summation over loop momenta.
- One must define the functional integral also in the p-adic context. p-Adic Fourier analysis relying on algebraic continuation raises hopes in this respect. p-Adicity suggests strongly that the loop momenta are discretized and ZEO predicts this kind of discretization naturally.

[7] **viXra:1006.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:55:27*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

The focus of this book is the number theoretical vision about physics. This vision involves three loosely related parts.

- The fusion of real physic and various p-adic physics to a single coherent whole by generalizing the number concept by fusing real numbers and various p-adic number fields along common rationals. Extensions of p-adic number fields can be introduced by gluing them along common algebraic numbers to reals. Algebraic continuation of the physics from rationals and their their extensions to various number fields (generalization of completion process for rationals) is the key idea, and the challenge is to understand whether how one could achieve this dream. A profound implication is that purely local p-adic physics would code for the p-adic fractality of long length length scale real physics and vice versa, and one could understand the origins of p-adic length scale hypothesis.
- Second part of the vision involves
hyper counterparts of the classical number fields
defined as subspaces of their complexifications
with Minkowskian signature of metric. Allowed space-time surfaces
would correspond to what might be called
hyper-quaternionic sub-manifolds of a
hyper-octonionic space and mappable to M
^{4}× CP_{2}in natural manner. One could assign to each point of space-time surface a hyper-quaternionic 4-plane which is the plane defined by the modified gamma matrices but not tangent plane in general. Hence the basic variational principle of TGD would have deep number theoretic content. - The third part of the vision involves infinite
primes identifiable in terms of an
infinite hierarchy of second quantized arithmetic
quantum fields theories on one hand, and as having
representations as space-time surfaces analogous to
zero loci of polynomials on the other hand.
Single space-time point would have
an infinitely complex structure since real unity can
be represented as a ratio of infinite numbers in
infinitely many manners each having its own number
theoretic anatomy. Single space-time point would be
in principle able to represent in its structure
the quantum state of the entire universe. This
number theoretic variant of Brahman=Atman identity
would make Universe an algebraic hologram.
Number theoretical vision suggests that infinite hyper-octonionic or -quaternionic primes could could correspond directly to the quantum numbers of elementary particles and a detailed proposal for this correspondence is made. Furthermore, the generalized eigenvalue spectrum of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator could be expressed in terms of hyper-complex primes in turn defining basic building bricks of infinite hyper-complex primes from which hyper-octonionic primes are obtained by dicrete SU(3) rotations performed for finite hyper-complex primes.

Besides this holy trinity I will discuss loosely related topics. Included are possible applications of category theory in TGD framework; TGD inspired considerations related to Riemann hypothesis; topological quantum computation in TGD Universe; and TGD inspired approach to Langlands program.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[6] **viXra:1006.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:56:36*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Physics as a generalized number theory program involves three threads: various p-adic physics
and their fusion together with real number based physics to a larger structure, the attempt to
understand basic physics in terms of classical number fields discussed in this article, and infinite
primes whose construction is formally analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic
quantum field theory.
In this article the connection between standard model symmetries and classical number fields
is discussed. The basis vision is that the geometry of the infinite-dimensional WCW ("world of
classical worlds") is unique from its mere existence. This leads to its identification as union of
symmetric spaces whose Kähler geometries are fixed by generalized conformal symmetries. This
fixes space-time dimension and the decomposition M^{4} x S and the idea is that the symmetries
of the Kähler manifold S make it somehow unique. The motivating observations are that the
dimensions of classical number fields are the dimensions of partonic 2-surfaces, space-time surfaces,
and imbedding space and M^{8} can be identified as hyper-octonions- a sub-space of complexified
octonions obtained by adding a commuting imaginary unit. This stimulates some questions.
Could one understand S = CP_{2} number theoretically in the sense that M^{8} and H = M^{4} x CP_{2}
be in some deep sense equivalent ("number theoretical compactification" or M^{8} - H duality)?
Could associativity define the fundamental dynamical principle so that space-time surfaces could
be regarded as associative or co-associative (defined properly) sub-manifolds of M^{8} or equivalently
of H.
One can indeed define the associativite (co-associative) 4-surfaces using octonionic representation
of gamma matrices of 8-D spaces as surfaces for which the modified gamma matrices span
an associate (co-associative) sub-space at each point of space-time surface. Also M^{8} - H duality
holds true if one assumes that this associative sub-space at each point contains preferred plane of
M^{8} identifiable as a preferred commutative or co-commutative plane (this condition generalizes
to an integral distribution of commutative planes in M^{8}). These planes are parametrized by CP_{2}
and this leads to M^{8} - H duality.
WCW itself can be identified as the space of 4-D local sub-algebras of the local Clifford
algebra of M^{8} or H which are associative or co-associative. An open conjecture is that this
characterization of the space-time surfaces is equivalent with the preferred extremal property of
Kähler action with preferred extremal identified as a critical extremal allowing infinite-dimensional
algebra of vanishing second variations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5] **viXra:1006.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:58:07*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Physics as a generalized number theory program involves three threads: various p-adic physics
and their fusion together with real number based physics to a larger structure, the attempt to
understand basic physics in terms of classical number fields (in particular, identifying associativity
condition as the basic dynamical principle), and infinite primes whose construction is formally
analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic quantum field theory. In this article
p-adic physics and the technical problems relates to the fusion of p-adic physics and real physics
to a larger structure are discussed.
The basic technical problems relate to the notion of definite integral both at space-time level,
imbedding space level and the level of WCW (the "world of classical worlds"). The expressibility
of WCW as a union of symmetric spacesleads to a proposal that harmonic analysis of symmetric
spaces can be used to define various integrals as sums over Fourier components. This leads to the
proposal the p-adic variant of symmetric space is obtained by a algebraic continuation through a
common intersection of these spaces, which basically reduces to an algebraic variant of coset space
involving algebraic extension of rationals by roots of unity. This brings in the notion of angle
measurement resolution coming as Δφ = 2π/p^{n} for given p-adic prime p. Also a proposal how
one can complete the discrete version of symmetric space to a continuous p-adic versions emerges
and means that each point is effectively replaced with the p-adic variant of the symmetric space
identifiable as a p-adic counterpart of the real discretization volume so that a fractal p-adic variant
of symmetric space results.
If the Kähler geometry of WCW is expressible in terms of rational or algebraic functions, it
can in principle be continued the p-adic context. One can however consider the possibility that
that the integrals over partonic 2-surfaces defining
ux Hamiltonians exist p-adically as Riemann
sums. This requires that the geometries of the partonic 2-surfaces effectively reduce to finite
sub-manifold geometries in the discretized version of δM_{+}^{4}. If Kähler action is required
to exist p-adically same kind of condition applies to the space-time surfaces themselves. These
strong conditions might make sense in the intersection of the real and p-adic worlds assumed to
characterized living matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4] **viXra:1006.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:01:55*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 95 Pages.

There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing WCW Kähler geometry
and spinor structure. The first approach relies on a direct guess of Kähler function. Second
approach relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing the huge symmetries
of the geometry needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of Riemann connection. The
third approach discussed in this article relies on the construction of spinor structure based on the
hypothesis that complexified WCW gamma matrices are representable as linear combinations of
fermionic oscillator operator for the second quantized free spinor fields at space-time surface and
on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in terms of spinor structure. This implies a
geometrization of fermionic statistics.
The basic philosophy is that at fundamental level the construction of WCW geometry reduces
to the second quantization of the induced spinor fields using Dirac action. This assumption
is parallel with the bosonic emergence stating that all gauge bosons are pairs of fermion and
antifermion at opposite throats of wormhole contact. Vacuum function is identified as Dirac
determinant and the conjecture is that it reduces to the exponent of Kähler function. In order
to achieve internal consistency induced gamma matrices appearing in Dirac operator must be
replaced by the modified gamma matrices defined uniquely by Kähler action and one must also
assume that extremals of Kähler action are in question so that the classical space-time dynamics
reduces to a consistency condition. This implies also super-symmetries and the fermionic oscillator
algebra at partonic 2-surfaces has intepretation as N = 1 generalization of space-time supersymmetry
algebra different however from standard SUSY algebra in that Majorana spinors are
not needed. This algebra serves as a building brick of various super-conformal algebras involved.
The requirement that there exist deformations giving rise to conserved Noether charges requires
that the preferred extremals are critical in the sense that the second variation of the Kähler action
vanishes for these deformations. Thus Bohr orbit property could correspond to criticality or at
least involve it.
Quantum classical correspondence demands that quantum numbers are coded to the properties
of the preferred extremals given by the Dirac determinant and this requires a linear coupling
to the conserved quantum charges in Cartan algebra. Effective 2-dimensionality allows a measurement
interaction term only in 3-D Chern-Simons Dirac action assignable to the wormhole
throats and the ends of the space-time surfaces at the boundaries of CD. This allows also to
have physical propagators reducing to Dirac propagator not possible without the measurement
interaction term. An essential point is that the measurement interaction corresponds formally
to a gauge transformation for the induced Kähler gauge potential. If one accepts the weak form
of electric-magnetic duality Kähler function reduces to a generalized Chern-Simons term and the
effect of measurement interaction term to Kähler function reduces effectively to the same gauge
transformation.
The basic vision is that WCW gamma matrices are expressible as super-symplectic charges at
the boundaries of CD. The basic building brick of WCW is the product of infinite-D symmetric
spaces assignable to the ends of the propagator line of the generalized Feynman diagram. WCW
Kähler metric has in this case "kinetic" parts associated with the ends and "interaction" part
between the ends. General expressions for the super-counterparts of WCW
ux Hamiltoniansand
for the matrix elements of WCW metric in terms of their anticommutators are proposed on basis
of this picture.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3] **viXra:1006.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:03:21*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing WCW Kähler geometry
and spinor structure. The first one relies on a direct guess of Kähler function. Second approach
relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing the huge symmetries of the geometry
needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of Riemann connection. The third approach relies
on the construction of spinor structure assuming that complexified WCW gamma matrices are
representable as linear combinations of fermionic oscillator operator for the second quantized free
spinor fields at space-time surface and on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in
terms of spinor structure.
In this article the construction of Kähler form and metric based on symmetries is discussed.
The basic vision is that WCW can be regarded as the space of generalized Feynman diagrams with
lines thickned to light-like 3-surfaces and vertices identified as partonic 2-surfaces. In zero energy
ontology the strong form of General Coordinate Invariance (GCI) implies effective 2-dimensionality
and the basic objects are pairs partonic 2-surfaces X^{2} at opposite light-like boundaries of causal
diamonds (CDs).
The hypothesis is that WCW can be regarded as a union of infinite-dimensional symmetric
spaces G/H labeled by zero modes having an interpretation as classical, non-quantum
uctuating
variables. A crucial role is played by the metric 2-dimensionality of the light-cone boundary
δM_{+}^{4}
+ and of light-like 3-surfaces implying a generalization of conformal invariance. The group
G acting as isometries of WCW is tentatively identified as the symplectic group of
δM_{+}^{4} x CP_{2}
localized with respect to X^{2}. H is identified as Kac-Moody type group associated with isometries
of H = M_{+}^{4} x CP_{2} acting on light-like 3-surfaces and thus on X^{2}.
An explicit construction for the Hamiltonians of WCW isometry algebra as so called
ux
Hamiltonians is proposed and also the elements of Kähler form can be constructed in terms of
these. Explicit expressions for WCW
ux Hamiltonians as functionals of complex coordinates of
the Cartesisian product of the infinite-dimensional symmetric spaces having as points the partonic
2-surfaces defining the ends of the the light 3-surface (line of generalized Feynman diagram) are
proposed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[2] **viXra:1006.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:05:03*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

There are two basic approaches to quantum TGD. The first approach, which is discussed in
this article, is a generalization of Einstein's geometrization program of physics to an infinitedimensional
context. Second approach is based on the identification of physics as a generalized
number theory. The first approach relies on the vision of quantum physics as infinite-dimensional
Kähler geometry for the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) identified as the space of 3-surfaces
in in certain 8-dimensional space. There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing
WCW Kähler geometry and spinor structure. The first approach relies on direct guess
of Kähler function. Second approach relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing
the huge symmetries of the geometry needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of
Riemann connection. The third approach relies on the construction of spinor structure based on
the hypothesis that complexified WCW gamma matrices are representable as linear combinations
of fermionic oscillator operator for second quantized free spinor fields at space-time surface and
on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in terms of WCW spinor structure.
In this article the proposal for Kähler function based on the requirement of 4-dimensional General
Coordinate Invariance implying that its definition must assign to a given 3-surface a unique
space-time surface. Quantum classical correspondence requires that this surface is a preferred extremal
of some some general coordinate invariant action, and so called Kähler action is a unique
candidate in this respect. The preferred extremal has intepretation as an analog of Bohr orbit
so that classical physics becomes and exact part of WCW geometry and therefore also quantum
physics.
The basic challenge is the explicit identification of WCW Kähler function K. Two assumptions
lead to the identification of K as a sum of Chern-Simons type terms associated with the ends of
causal diamond and with the light-like wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced
metric changes. The first assumption is the weak form of electric magnetic duality. Second
assumption is that the Kähler current for preferred extremals satisfies the condition jK ^ djK = 0
implying that the
ow parameter of the
ow lines of jK defines a global space-time coordinate.
This would mean that the vision about reduction to almost topological QFT would be realized.
Second challenge is the understanding of the space-time correlates of quantum criticality.
Electric-magnetic duality helps considerably here. The realization that the hierarchy of Planck
constant realized in terms of coverings of the imbedding space follows from basic quantum TGD
leads to a further understanding. The extreme non-linearity of canonical momentum densities as
functions of time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates implies that the correspondence
between these two variables is not 1-1 so that it is natural to introduce coverings of CD x CP_{2}.
This leads also to a precise geometric characterization of the criticality of the preferred extremals.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1006.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:06:21*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

There are two basic approaches to the construction of quantum TGD. The first approach
relies on the vision of quantum physics as infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry for the "world of
classical worlds" identified as the space of 3-surfaces in in certain 8-dimensional space. Essentially
a generalization of the Einstein's geometrization of physics program is in question. The second
vision is the identification of physics as a generalized number theory. This program involves
three threads: various p-adic physics and their fusion together with real number based physics
to a larger structure, the attempt to understand basic physics in terms of classical number fields
(in particular, identifying associativity condition as the basic dynamical principle), and infinite
primes whose construction is formally analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic
quantum field theory. In this article brief summaries of physics as infinite-dimensional geometry
and generalized number theory are given to be followed by more detailed articles.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics