# Relativity and Cosmology

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2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(46) - 1804(47) - 1805(39) - 1806(41) - 1807(48) - 1808(29) - 1809(25) - 1810(38) - 1811(22)

## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3121] viXra:1811.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 05:48:52

### Physical Time and Time Clock

Authors: Daniele Sasso

Time is a fundamental quantity in physics and its definition has generated many problems starting from Newton’s philosophical absolute time. Einstein searched for giving an operative definition of time through the use of unreal ideal clocks and of rays of light. In this paper we will search for giving a physical definition of time pointing out the necessity of avoiding in physics mistakes connected whether with Newton’s exclusively philosophical definition, taken out of the scientific context, or with Einstein’s operative definition through unreal clocks. We will prove nevertheless also the use of real clocks raises generally problems because of their real working and of the inadequacy of measuring instruments.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3120] viXra:1811.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-11 21:52:36

### The Irrational Standard Model vs ...

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 5 Pages. subcategory: Nuclear Physics

the strong points and reasoning of the Standard Model are presented, the useless artifices of it are explored, and a simpler more comprehensive model is presented
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3119] viXra:1811.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 07:58:10

### Time Travel of Stephen Hawking

Authors: George Rajna

Stephen Hawking's final book suggests time travel may one day be possible – here's what to make of it. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3118] viXra:1811.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 10:52:51

### Accelerating Hubble Redshift

Authors: William Q. Sumner

Understanding the “acceleration” of modern Hubble redshift measurements begins with Schr ̈odinger. In 1939 he proved that all quantum wave functions coevolve with the curved spacetime of a closed Friedmann universe. While both photon wavelengths and atomic radii are proportional to the Fried- mann radius, the wavelengths of photons that an atom emits are proportional to the square of the radius. This larger shift in atomic emissions changes the current paradigm that redshift implies ex- pansion. Instead, redshift implies the contraction of a closed Friedmann universe. Hubble redshifts are observed only when old blueshifted photons are compared to current atomic emissions that have blueshifted even more. This theoretical prediction is confirmed by modern Hubble redshift measure- ments. The Pantheon redshift data set of 1048 supernovas was analyzed assuming that atoms change like Schro ̈dinger predicted. The Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are the only variables. The fit, Ho = −72.03 ± 0.25 km s−1Mpc−1 and 1/2 < qo < 0.501, has a standard deviation 0.1516 compared to the average data error 0.1418. No modifications to general relativity or to Friedmann’s 1922 solution are necessary to explain accelerating Hubble redshifts. A nearly flat Friedmann universe accelerating in collapse is enough.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3117] viXra:1811.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-11 03:59:33

### Dark Energy on a Cosmic Time

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge

Development of Dark Energy on a cosmic time. Additional diagram to the article : http://viXra.org/abs/1807.0115?ref=10028904
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3116] viXra:1811.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-11 05:13:57

### The Unruh Effect: Insight from the Laws of Thermodynamics (Aps Meeting)

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 5 Pages. Presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the APS Mid-Atlantic Section, November 9-10,

This is a copy of the poster which was presented at the Mid-Atlantic Section of the American Physical Society in College Park, Maryland on November 9-10, 2018: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAS18/Session/B01.18
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3115] viXra:1811.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 11:23:58

### Metric System to be Changed

Authors: George Rajna

Officials with the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) have announced that at a meeting to be held next week, four of the base units used in the metric system will be redefined. [32] The UK's first quantum accelerometer for navigation has been demonstrated by a team from Imperial College London and M Squared. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3114] viXra:1811.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 17:41:35

### MHCE8S Theory Indicates That the Energetic Neutrino Observed in Antartica is a heavy (4430 MeV) Majorana Neutrino

Authors: George R. briggs

Abstract: MHCE8S theory strongly indicates that a 4th massive neutrino exists, of 4430 MeV mc^2 mass and Majoranic in Nature (the particle is its own antiparticle with no spin). As such it is a candidate for the energetic neutrino observed in Antartica. It has the same mass as the Z(4430) tetraquark and therefore cannot be derived directly from the lighter stau slepton supersymmetric particle presently proposed
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3113] viXra:1811.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 07:44:16

### Testing Proposals for Human Free Will in the Raspberry Multiverse, Local Entanglement and M&M Lightspeed.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

According to Quantum FFF Theory, (Function Follows Form) the process of wave function collapse of two entangled particles into mirror symmetrical states, is the basic process for all created particles. As a consequence, we should live inside one part of a mirror Charge-Parity-symmetrical entangled copy MULTIVERSE with one central origin the big bang. We will give it the name: Raspberry Multiverse. Even human choice making should be subjected to this mirror symmetrical process. Benjamin Libet described a choice experiment, which we could use to measure how many copy universes there should be. At the smaller scale however, we observe also entanglement effects between particles. Einstein called them “spooky action at a distance”, which he did not like and suggested a different explanation called “Hidden Variables”. However I present here a support for the spooky faster than light entanglement explanation, based on an extended Stern Gerlach experiment, in line with J.S Bell’s arguments about a strange aspect of the original experiment. That even the lightspeed constancy theory should be adapted, by a different Michelson Morley experiment seems to be a logic result of the Quantum FFF Model..
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3112] viXra:1811.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 11:53:11

### An Alternate RELATIVISTICALLY Consistent Formation of the Universe

Authors: David Grant Taylor

This article offers a device by which our local observed Universe could have come to be in an infi-nite Cosmos. It reasons how a Schwarzschild Object||Black Hole [SO] could have come to be from a Universe that was nothing but pure matter particles be they Hydrogen (or elements higher up the Periodic Table), Quantum Particles or Boson particles could have spontaneously formed into an SO. It presents mathematic arguments as to how the escape velocity on any object could never exceed lightspeed. It also explains how Bosons (including Gravitons) would be slowed by Relativistic distortion, adding both mass and velocity to matter. Because of that slowdown the Bosons would escape the SO in much smaller numbers. It would allow any matter formed by the slowing Bosons to eventually escape and generate EM signals upon collisions with newly captured Atoms. It establishes that the finite Universe we currently observe is much older than is currently thought, and possibly much larger. It also establishes that velocity and distance of the M31 An-dromeda Galaxy are completely inconsistent with current Hubble Constant values and so argues against fundamental arguments used in current Big Bang Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3111] viXra:1811.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 17:38:03

### The Nature of Electricity, Gravity, Dark Matter, Etc.

Authors: Oskin Victor

N. Tesla: "on the day when we understand what" electricity"is, we will witness an event even greater and more important than all the events in the history of mankind." Having understood the nature of electricity, we will understand the nature of gravity, dark matter, ball lightning, find a solution to other problematic issues of modern physics and biology. In particular, we learn what consciousness, soul, brain, how life is born, etc.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3110] viXra:1811.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 04:04:41

### The Distance Between Two Inertial Observers in Relative Motion in Special Relativity

Authors: Qing-Ping Ma

When two inertial observers A and B in relative motion measure the distance between them, will they obtain the same value? Although there is a lack of detailed expositions on this issue, many relativity articles and books seem to suggest that the observers on the earth measure a longer distance than that measured by the observers moving relative to the earth. The present study has examined this issue in detail, using two fundamental conditions of special relativity: 1) the space time interval between two events in the Minkowski space is independent of the inertial reference frame chosen; and 2) there is no privileged reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equal. The results of the present study shows that the value of the distance between A and B measured by observer B in a frame where B is stationary is the same as that obtained by observer A in a frame where A is stationary. The idea that distance measured by observer A is longer than that measured by observer B contradicts special relativity, because it designates de facto more privileged reference frames, which cannot be correct within the framework of special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3109] viXra:1811.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 14:55:56

### Black Hole Mass Decreasing, The Power and The Time of Two Black Holes in Coalescence, in The Quintessence Field

Authors: Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

In this paper, we investigate some consequences of the black hole stabilization of Schwarzschild in the presence of quintessence type of dark energy which leads the way to the black hole mass decreasing other than the Hawking radiation process. The results show that in the quintessence field, the black hole shows a second-order phase transition, implying the existence of a stable phase. However, this stabilization implies some paradoxical effects on the black hole, which gives us a new regard about black holes, precisely we obtain the negative absolute temperature and we propose a process permitting us to appreciate well the likely cause of this phenomenon. These results allow us to give a new definition of the surface gravity for the Schwarzschild black hole in the field of quintessence, which depends on the flux of dilatation produced by the quintessence type of dark energy. Afterward, we analyze the impact of dark energy on the power and the time of two black holes needed to coalesce. Keywords: Quintessence, black hole, second-order phase transition, negative absolute temperature, gravitational waves
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3108] viXra:1811.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 19:24:58

### The Lorentz Upshot of the Galilean Group's Fundamentals

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

The fundamental properties of the (x, t) Galilean inertial transformations include their homogeneous linearity, their intrinsic velocity v, where setting v to zero produces the identity transformation and negation of v inverts the transformation, and their closure under composition. We show that stipulation of these three fundamental (x, t) Galilean inertial transformation properties yields all generic (x, t) Lorentz transformation groups, which are distinguished by their speed constant values that supplant c; the (x, t) Galilean group itself is the generic (x, t) Lorentz group with infinite speed constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3107] viXra:1811.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 00:04:55

### Variable Polytropic Gas Cosmology

Authors: M. Salti, E. E. Kangal, O. Aydogdu

We mainly study a cosmological scenario dening by the variable Polytropic gas (VPG) unified energy density proposal. To reach this aim, we start with reconstructing a generalized form of the original Polyrtropic gas (OPG) denition. Later, we fit the auxiliary parameters given in the model and discuss essential cosmological features of the VPG proposal. Besides, we compare the VPG with the OPG by focusing on recent observational dataset given in literature including Planck 2018 results. We see that the VPG model yields better results than the OPG description and it fits very well with the recent experimental data. Moreover, we discuss some thermodynamical features of the VPG and conclude that the model describes a thermodynamically stable system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3106] viXra:1811.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 03:01:51

### Lorentz Force in Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Sangwha Yi

In the Special Relativity theory, we tell undergraduate how Lorentz 4-force is invariant in Special Relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3105] viXra:1811.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 08:50:35

### Equivalence Principle is Wrong ? ( In Russian )

Authors: L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha

Мы рассматриваем частный случай принципа эквивалентности ( ПЭ ) , а именно - утверждение о том, что однородное статическое гравитационное поле в инерциальной системе отсчета своим влиянием на ход неподвижных часов ( ход времени ) во всем ( т.е. полностью ) тождественно влиянию ускоренного движения на ход неподвижных часов в жесткой равноускоренной системе отсчета .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3104] viXra:1811.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 14:54:09

### Falsification of the Special Relativity with the Observed Brightness of Type Ia Supernovae

Authors: Dino Bruniera

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected, that is calculated with the formula supported by the Scientific Community. The Scientific Community states that this fact shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating. But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula isn’t correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is due to the recession speed of the location of the space where the Earth is located at the reception of photons, with respect to the location where they were emitted. And since the cosmological redshift is considered as a factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, the proof that it isn’t, falsifies the Special Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3103] viXra:1811.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 03:42:50

### Hipothesis Based on the Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space

Authors: Dino Bruniera

In “Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space”, published on November 2nd, 2018, I affirmed that from it we can derive some hypotheses on the various phenomena of the Universe. And now, with this article, I propose to expose these hypotheses, which explain various phenomena of the Universe in a way compatible with said theory and more consistent with the observations compared to that currently supported by the Scientific Community. Here are, in short, the hypotheses. The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause the Universe to expand. Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enabling the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further. Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects, with the laws relating to General Relativity. I also present a modification to the universal gravity formula, to make it compatible with this model of the Universe. Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater. Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. I also present a formula for calculating the apparent brightness compatible with the observations of type Ia supernovae with high redshift. Moreover, I demonstrate that considering that the cosmological redshift is due to the expansion of space, as the Scientific Community currently supports, the apparent brightness of celestial objects with high redshift, cannot be justified.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3102] viXra:1811.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 03:06:14

### Apparent Contraction and Expansion of Space Relative to Absolutely Moving Observer - New Explanation of the Phenomena of Stellar Aberration, Doppler Effect and Mercury Anomalous Perihelion Advance

Could Albert Einstein be wrong about absolute motion ,absolute time and gravity but right about space contraction and the speed of light?Perhaps the great physicist is not completely wrong. In this paper, a new law of transformation of reference framesfor absolutely moving observers is proposed. We may call this Apparent Source Transformation ( AST ). With this transformation, the space in front of an absolutely moving observer apparently contracts whereas the space behind an absolutely moving observer expands. Profoundly, AST changes current understanding of the phenomenon of stellar aberration. Stellar aberration occurs because of compression (or expansion ) of space in front of ( behind ) an absolutely moving observer. The apparent change in position of the star is not in the direction of absolute velocity, but in the opposite direction! Mercury’s anomalous perihelion advance can be explained by expansion of space as seen by the Sun and as seen by Mercury. AST also provides physical explanation for a new theory already proposed by this author: Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c , λ ' = λ e-V/c. This agrees with the constancy of the speed of light: f 'λ' = f λ= c and can explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. Not only frequency but also wavelength changes for an absolutely moving observer and the change in wave length for a moving observer can only be explained by apparent expansion or contraction of space as seen by an absolutely moving observer. AST has differences from and similarities to Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) and/or Lorentz Contraction ( LC ) as follows:1. AST postulates that the speed of light is constant c irrespective of source or observer uniform motion, but the group velocity of light varies with mirror velocity 2. AST postulates absolute time 3. According to AST, absolute motion exists, but the ether doesn't exist as we know it 4. According to AST, space apparently contracts in front of an absolutely moving observer and expands behind him/her, only as seen by the absolutely moving observer, whereas space (or length ) only contracts, both in the forward and backward directions, as seen by the 'stationary' observer, in SRT and LC. In AST, space contraction is applied only when objects are considered as sources ( sources of light, EM waves, electrostatic fields, gravity ). In Apparent Source Transformation, it is assumed that only the position of the light source will apparently change relative to the detector/observer but the the mirrors, the beam splitter and all other parts of the apparatus will be assumed to be at their actual/physical positions to analyze the experiment. 5. In AST, it is space itself that contracts or expands relative to a moving observer regarding the position of sources 6.AST gives an exponential law of transformation of space, and is different from Lorentz transformations. 7. In AST, the observer is the light detecting device or the human directly detecting the light and light speed experiments should always be analyzed from the perspective of the inertial observer. More precisely, the observer is the atom detecting the light. Apparent Source Transformation evolved from a theory called Apparent Source Theory already proposed by this author. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion of the Michelson-Morley experiment is to create an apparent change in position of the light source as seen by ( relative to ) the observer/detector.The resulting fringe shift is the same as if the source was actually /physically moved to the same position. Intuitively, we can guess that actually changing the source position will not result in significant fringe shift or gives only small fringe shift. Apparent Source Theory not only accounted for the 'null' fringe shift of the Michelson-Morley experiment, but also for the small fringe shifts observed such as in the original Michelson experiment of 1881 and the Miller experiments. It explains many other light speed experiments, including theSagnac effect, the Marinov experiment, the Silvertooth experiment, the Bryan G Wallace experiment, the Roland De Witte and other experiments.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3101] viXra:1811.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 03:24:45

### Derivation of Schwarschild Metric from Kepler's Third law

Authors: Amit Kumar Jha

In this paper I am deriving Schwarschild Metric by using Kepler's Law ( T cube ) without using any complexity of General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3100] viXra:1811.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 05:36:24

### Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space

Authors: Dino Bruniera

With this article I propose to demonstrate, through the CMBR, a theory for which the light is manifested in the expanding space, so its speed is isotropic only towards it and not towards the celestial objects in motion respect to it. Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is given by the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time, as a function of its speed with respect to the medium in witch the light is manifested, which in this theory corresponds to the expanding space. Hence now Special Relativity is replaceable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in space and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3099] viXra:1810.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-31 09:30:28

### Invariance of Maxwell’s Equations Under Galileo’s Transformations

Authors: Daniele Sasso

A proof of the invariance of Maxwell‟s equations for inertial reference frames, making use of the Galilean Transformations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3098] viXra:1810.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 11:50:23

### The Significance of Broken and Unbroken E8 Symmetry Time Is Shown For an MHCE8S Universe

Authors: George R. briggs
Comments: 1 Page. I wish to thank ViXra.org for incorporating one of my key numbers, 224, in my last note's identity number.

Abstract: Identification and separation can be made between broken and unbroken E8 symmetry time in MHCE8S universe theory thanks to the Z(4430) tetraquark
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3097] viXra:1810.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 12:55:20

### Discovery of the New Laws of Movement Within the Moving System in the New Theory of Relativity

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

ABSTRACT. In this PAPER, present a new theory of relativity of Galileo and discovery the new law of movement within moving system. The more in depth analysis of the theory of relativity to move towards to explain the new special theory of relativity. The new special theory of relativity1-7,14 explained correctly the entire fundamental phenomenon that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, inside of inertial moving systems and in the systems at rest. However, some statements in this papers1-7 did not reveal the full basic physics philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. This paper eliminate this shortcoming14. It allowed objectively excluding all admitted errors in the development of the theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3096] viXra:1810.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 15:31:55

### About Total Relativity and the Meaning of the 5th Dimension for the Material Particle

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra

An introduction to Total Relativity theory as potential fields with Riemann flat energy distribution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3095] viXra:1810.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 23:27:52

### Time Arrow and Holographic Interval

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

The arrow of time is considered from the point of view of the modified holographic principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3094] viXra:1810.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 04:41:17

### Comment on “A Motion Paradox from Einstein´s Relativity of Simultaneity”

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu

In this paper we analyse “a new and potentially important paradox related to Einstein’s theories of special relativity and relativity of simultaneity” introduced by Espen Gaarder Haug in a very interesting recent paper. Based in our previous work we show that there is no paradox since it is impossible that “one reference frame will claim that the train is moving and that the other frame must claim that the train is standing still in the time window “between” two distant events”. The world indeed is not “bizarre” since there is an indeterminacy in the standard formulation of the theory that disappear if we consider a third frame where the one-way speed of light is isotropic.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3093] viXra:1810.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 15:26:53

### Is Time Misconception of Transformations Possible?

Authors: Mesut Kavak

Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual causative phenomenon? Is it possible to make a wrong conception for time and speed even if the phenomenon we advocate is actually true?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3092] viXra:1810.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 10:33:55

### Relationship Between Dark Energy with Quantum Mechanics and Fundamental Forces

In this paper we discuss on the geometrical reason that leading to expansion of the universe. This reason tells us that vector fields and tensor fields in the manifolds lead to accelerating the manifolds. If we accept this theory we can describe basis of the quantum mechanics. We mean that if we imagine atoms as manifolds because of that acceleration is so low, all the vector fields and tensor fields that exist in atoms will be curved. So, all the vectors treat like waves, and this is basic reason for quantum mechanics that tell us particle in the atoms like electron treat like wave. In this paper we evaluate 4-vector as vector that treats like wave and finally we will talk about unification of forces with tensor fields. Since tensor fields lead to accelerating the manifolds, fundamental forces lead too. As this approach we could unify our forces in one equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3091] viXra:1810.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 10:49:02

### From Cosmological Constant to Cosmological Matrix

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 7 Pages. The cosmological matrix is the original idea.

The starting point of modern theoretical cosmology were the Einstein equations with the cosmological constant Λ which was introduced by Einstein. The Einstein equations with the cosmological matrix is introduced here.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3090] viXra:1810.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 13:21:34

### The Contraction of the Multiverse with C Speed

Authors: Aurelian Dan Ivan

The notions of length, mass and time are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into a macrocosm and a microcosm, and establishing absolute results for distances and relative masses, which is illogical.The multiverse is infinite and consists of an infinite number of universes The multiverse is composed of multiverse elements The multiverse elements are perceived by humans as a substance or field function within the human observation . Multiverse space-time dimensions, tend to mathematically 0. Applying number 0 to physics formulas is erroneous, except for addition and drop operations, this being only a neutral element to add; the defining property of 0 is that 0 + a = a for all numbers a. The expressions "something / 0 = infinite" and "something x 0 = 0" can not describe the physical reality. The multiverse contracted by changing the scale. The contraction takes place across the entire space and temporal scale, thus preserving our perception of the relative scale of the universe and of all the multiverse elements that make up at one point. The only way we perceive the multiverse is the reflection of interactions between multiverse elements at a particular moment of contraction. Any measurement of distances, masses and times is relative, which has a different value in each moment. Changing the scale by shrinkage is how the multiverse exists. The phenomenon can be observed because our sense organs and our measures and observation, are composed of elements multiverse that contracts with the same speed rate of contraction of the multiverse in physical vacuum is C = 299790000 m / s where m is the physical length unit of measurement and s is the physical measure of time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3089] viXra:1810.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 08:02:16

### Self-Gravitating Gaseous Spheres in 5D Framework

Authors: Evrim Ersin Kangal

One of the suitable theoretical idea for the polytrope in the Kaluza-Klein cosmology is discussed. Assuming a 5-dimensional (5D) spacetime model described by the Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity, we implement the energy density and pressure of the polytrope which is a self-gravitating gaseous sphere and still very useful as a crude approximation to more realistic stellar models. Next, we obtain the best-fit values of the auxiliary parameters given in the model according to the recent observational dataset. Finally, we study some cosmological features and the thermodynamical stability of the model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3088] viXra:1810.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 08:13:25

### Altering the Natures of Gravity and Light Redefines the Universe

Authors: Paul Schroeder
Comments: 5 Pages. presented to CNPS online discussion group

I have a number of ‘Universe is Otherwise’ papers that focus on giving gravity a physical nature and expanding its effects upon everything in our universe. The summary of my ‘paep’(1) gravity recognizes a pushing force applied by the flow of EM radiation such as light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3087] viXra:1810.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 12:51:31

### Special Relativity in Complex Space-Time. Part 4. General Problems of Physics and Complex Space-Time

The article shows that the paravector orthogonal transformation is invariant for the Klein-Gordon equation and for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the free particle. This confirms that the alternative theory of relativity, which we create in the complex space-time, does not conflict with other branches of physics. The complex space-time with its natural properties gives hope for ordering of the physics of the great speeds created by the revolution at the turn of the 19th and 20th century.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3086] viXra:1810.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 17:56:23

### Gravitational Catastrophe and Dark Matter

Authors: Mesut Kavak

I have been working for a long time about basic laws of physics. During this time I noticed, that gravity does not work as Newtonian. Distance and gravitational force relation changes over distance. The attraction properties change for each point of free space, and have some limits. The attraction changes due to some values between 1/r and 1/r^2 even for the existent furthest distance. This work aims to analyze and discuss this phenomenon.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3085] viXra:1810.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 05:42:39

### Can Acceleration Phase Account for the Observed Accelerating Expansion of the Universe?

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi

A new cosmological era began with the discovery of accelerating expansion of the Universe. The deviation of the Hubble diagram from exhibiting a linear distance-redshift relation at high redshifts provides the very crucial clue to support this discovery. In this paper I present a theory to account for the observed accelerating expansion of the Universe. I discuss that the Universe should attain a constant rate of expansion in future, given the linear distance-redshift relation being obeyed by the receding large-scale structures within the local Universe, suggesting constant recessional velocities. I compare the local Universe within which the receding large-scale structures exhibit the linear distance-redshift relation in accordance with the Hubble diagram, and the remote Universe within which the receding large-scale structures deviate from exhibiting the expected linearity. There may be a simple terminology termed by me as “acceleration phase” that would probably account for the observed acceleration, particularly for the receding large-scale structures belonging to the remote Universe that exhibit high redshifts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3084] viXra:1810.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 23:14:36

### About Time Expansion and Length Contraction

Authors: Daehyeon KANG

Length contraction and time expansion in special theory of relativity are much confused. In this paper, we will explain it easily and clearly by Lorentz transfor mation equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3083] viXra:1810.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 01:29:03

### The Michelson-Morley Experiment and Classical Analysis of Reflection of Light From a Moving Mirror - Implications for the Lorentz Transformation Equations

This paper presents an argument that the conventional analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX) might be only approximately correct but not strictly accurate. Accurate classical analysis would require revision of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This new analysis may have even more far reaching consequences: if the new classical analysis results in different length contraction formula for different experimental setups, this would lead to absurdity of the whole concept of length contraction and Lorentz transformation. The standard ether analysis of the MMX implies a law of reflection of light from a moving mirror and this may not agree with the classical analysis, which existed even before the conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Accurate ether analysis of MMX should be based on the classical analysis of reflection of light from a moving mirror, which should be derived from fundamental classical wave principles, and not from the requirement that the Michelson-Morley experiment should give a null fringe shift. The significant divergence of the light beam has been neglected ( overlooked ) in the standard analysis. The fallacy in the standard analysis is that it presumes that the transverse light will not miss the observer/detector, which is possible only if we consider the finite divergence of the beam, but ignores the beam divergence in the analysis and goes on to extraordinary conclusions ( length contraction ). Michelson's analogy of a man swimming across a river is the original fallacy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3082] viXra:1810.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 01:11:04

### The Black Hole Binary Gravitons and Thermodynamics

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 20 Pages. Keywords: Graviton, Schwinger source theory, spectrum of H-Atom, Coulomb potential,

The energy spectrum of graviton emitted by the black hole binary is calculated in the first part of the chapter. Then, the total quantum loss of energy, is calculated in the Schwinger theory of gravity. In the next part we determine the electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons by calculating an electron coupling to the black hole thermal bath. Energy shift of electrons in H-atom is determined in the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. In the last section we determine the velocity of sound in the black hole atmosphere, which is here considered as the black hole photon sea. Derivation is based on the thermodynamic theory of the black hole photon gas.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3081] viXra:1810.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 19:09:05

### Energy Of Light And Radius of Electron

Authors: Eric Su

Based on conservation law of energy, Poynting vector describes the power per unit area in electromagnetic wave. The time-averaged power per unit area is independent of the wavelength and the frequency of the wave. One example is FM radio signal. In photoelectric effect, the incident light wave transfers energy to the electron. Light wave of higher frequency takes longer time to transfer more energy to the electron. The total energy absorbed by the electron is proportional to the area facing the incident light. From this area, the radius of the electron can be calculated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3080] viXra:1810.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-14 11:09:36

### Finishing Touches Applied to MHCE8S Universe Theory

Authors: George R. briggs
Comments: 2 Pages. The key number 155 appears on ViXra 1810.0155, Alexey V. Melkikh, Ural Fed. Univ.,Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract: 3 new finishing touches to Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric universe theory are described which essentially complete the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3079] viXra:1810.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 09:46:45

### Constant Heat Heat Result Effect on Time

This paper uses the law, heat=constant vibration*time And so the new law is time=universal heat/constant vibration Time passing is decreased by vibrating more and increased by vibrating less by the universal heat and is increased by increasing heat while the vibration is constant and decreased by decreasing the heat while the vibration is constant
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3078] viXra:1810.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 21:19:29

### Trivial Inconsistency Of Special Relativity's Light Postulate.

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 3 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

Einstein made use of the concept of speed, a concept that is defined to be non-invariant under Galilean transformation, in a postulate to postulate a speed - the speed of light - to be invariant for all inertial reference frames. This is a direct trivial logical inconsistency within Newtonian mechanics which needs no further discussion and deliberation. As such, special relativity is a theory that is mutually independent from Newtonian mechanics. The physical reality as found in the Newtonian world has no connection whatsoever with the physical reality as found in special relativity. Any experiment done and interpreted through special relativity has no relevance in the physical world as observed and represented by Newtonian mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3077] viXra:1810.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 21:25:48

### Open Letter - The Failure Of Einstein's E=mc².

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 2 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

The author has discovered very recently (April 2016) that the formula E = mc^2 is invalid; energy is fictitious in the formula. The proof is simple and involves no high mathematics.Any good high school students taking physics as a subject could easily come to a definite understanding of the analysis and decides for himself whether the author’s claim is correct; there is no need to rely on the words of any physics professor to know whether the formula E = mc^2 is valid or invalid.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3076] viXra:1810.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 21:29:13

### Newton's Invariant Mass Has Remained Invariant.

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

Contemporary mainstream physics has accepted special relativity to be a fully tested and verified theory. The internet has been full of references for experiments that purportedly verified special relativity. This article argues that many of these experiments purportedly verifying special relativity are irrelevant as evidence; a commonly quoted example being the Kaufmann, Bucherer and Neumann experiments. On the contrary, there is only one lone uncorroborated experiment that shows some evidence of the validity of special relativity - the 1964 experiment of William Bertozzi of the MIT; for the matter, the experiment provides only a weak evidence with 10% accuracy. If a lone experiment were sufficient as evidence in science, then the 1989 Pons & Fleischmann experiment could have won the experimenters a Nobel Prize in physics - they did not. The author proposes a simple experiment that could decide incontrovertibly between the two competing mechanics, the old Newtonian mechanics or the “newer” special relativity - by just directly measuring the velocity of electrons ejected in natural beta decay. To date, despite the simplicity of the experiment, no one has performed the experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3075] viXra:1810.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 21:34:37

### Dishonesty In Academia To Promote Special Relativity.

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 4 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

A central feature of special relativity is the increase of mass with velocity - mass going to infinity when a body approaches the speed limit of light. This feature is of the utmost importance as special relativity has been accepted by modern physics to have clearly proven Newtonian mechanics to be wrong fundamentally; Newton’s mechanics has mass to be an invariant property of matter. As it is expected that students would not easily accept a dismissal of Newton’s monumental work, the Principia, the physics academia tries to have a way to convince students that indeed this central feature of mass increasing with velocity could even be verified through experiments done in the usual laboratory of a university. The fact of the matter is otherwise - that even the original ex- periments by Kaufmann (1901), Bucherer (1908) that attempted to show mass increasing with velocity are flawed as the author has shown. The proposed simplified experiments are tantamount to fraud propagated on unsuspecting students who may not have the time to delve into the issues more thoroughly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3074] viXra:1810.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 22:53:55

### The Emergence of Time Through the Entropy of Space Entanglement

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

In this paper, time is formulated through the entropy of space entanglement at the boundary. From this definition, gravitational time dilation is immediately obtained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3073] viXra:1810.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 09:40:31

### The Universe as a Superorganism

Authors: Alexey V. Melkikh

The assumption that the early universe was not hot but in a pure quantum state allowed the main problems of cosmology to be solved from a single point: the flatness and homogeneity of the universe, in addition to the predominance of matter over antimatter and the absence of monopoles. A model according to which this quantum state itself was formed under large compression as a result of a quantum phase transition is proposed. In this case, a Big Bounce can be treated as quantum scattering, as a result of which more than one universe can form. The properties of the universe, on the basis of which life arose within it, were encoded in topological states before the Big Bounce (scattering). At later stages, life evolved directly. Dark matter and dark energy can be used to control the lifetime of the universe. The universe itself can be considered to be a superorganism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3072] viXra:1810.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 09:41:00

### On the Nature and Values of the Gravitational and Cosmological Constants

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov

Stable particles of the Universe - protons and electrons - are in constant motion (there is a background component of their velocity), which is the source of the vacuum energy, explains the non-Newtonian vacuum potential and the curvature of space and determines the values of the gravitational and cosmological constants. This follows from the balance of interactions between a free electron and a proton, provided that there are no electrical forces and external influences.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3071] viXra:1810.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 14:52:16

### Momentum Energy Depletion

What happens if two equal masses hit each other at the same velocity and as they try to rebound the two masses are not let to do so and are pushed again to each other from behind And then the whole energy of momentum is turned into either sound or light It’s a momentum collision that is totally depleted and the time of energy depletion is very small and the balls are not let to rebound at all you could make this doable by making several bigger masses hit push each other whenever the balls colliding try to rebound
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3070] viXra:1810.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 04:07:44

### Geometrical Formulation of Physics.

Authors: Johan Noldus

We define a unique geometrical Poisson bracket for classical physics of point particles and generalize this to the commutator algebra of quantum theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3069] viXra:1810.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-05 14:57:31

### A Revised Principle of the Sagnac Interferometer

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk

This article describes the behavior of the Sagnac interferometer, based on irrefutable physics. It also shows that the fiber optic gyroscope does not operate like this interferometer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3068] viXra:1810.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 10:29:12

### Stoe Replaces Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: John Hodge

The need for a paradigm shift is growing. Many ad hoc models and outlandish speculations abound to model many unexplained observations. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) audacious claim of a new paradigm is supported by corresponding to relativity and quantum mechanics; by explaining many problematical observations; and by making and fulfilling several predictions. It posits 2 components of the universe emerge to form everything. It models the universe as composed of cells with Sources (spiral galaxies) and Sinks (elliptical galaxies and matter). It forms the Universal Equations, one equation to define the potential at all points and one equation that uses the potential to exert forces on matter. These equations are applied the microwave background temperature, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, galaxy redshift and discrete redshift, the pioneer anomaly, light interference, etc. The wave model of light is rejected by 2 experiments predicted by the STOE. Maxwell's Equations are modified. Life and society application of the STOE principles is suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3067] viXra:1810.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 12:42:47

### Energy Mass Equivalence in Celestial Systems

E=mc^2 we could take this relation to celestial systems to know the energy of a system. to do this we can make the difference between mass of the star and mass of planet's difference as in this relation (m1-m2)c^2 where m1 is the mass of a the star and m2 is the mass of the planet and one of the c is equal to orbit speed + gravitational pull at one sec and the other c or the other speed of light is multiplied by the difference between the masses and that is equal to the quantity of time in seconds that the system is at existence
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3066] viXra:1810.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 21:38:36

### One Way Speed of Light Test – is it Possible?

Authors: Doug Marett

Einstein in 1905 introduced the constancy of the speed of light as a postulate, but in so doing removed the 19th century idea that the speed of light can be explained physically. So one might ask the question, why is the speed of light the speed that it is, and not something else? Einstein’s theory provides no answer for this question. As a philosophical exercise, we consider if relativity genuinely disproved the alternative hypothesis, that light can be modeled as a wave propagating through a medium that is static with respect to the universe. We further consider if this alternative model can remain consistent with the experimentally observed speed of light. We examine herein the mathematical arguments of Herbert Ives regarding slow clock transport with respect to such a hypothetical “preferred frame” for the velocity of light, and find that this leads to a prediction of clock biases which obfuscate any one-way speed of light differences expected from a Galilean addition of velocities. As such the Lorentzian model followed by Ives can be seen as equivalent to relativity, but differing in the conventions regarding the synchronization of clocks. Finally, we explore how clocks positioned in a static frame of reference might be used to make the anticipated one-way speed of light visible experimentally.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3065] viXra:1810.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 02:34:49

### The Relativistic Mechanics of E=mc2 Fails

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

The relativistic mechanics of contemporary physics does not have a defined unit of force. Its definition of force as F=d/dt(mv/√(1-v²/c²)) does not define a real standard unit of force. A Newtonian unit of force, e.g. the SI newton, may not be used in any of the relativistic formulas; it is a real unit of force only with Newtonian mechanics which observes Newton’s second law of motion as an axiom defining a unit of force as mass × acceleration. Without a unit of force, the application of the work-energy theorem produces only a formula that evaluates only to a pure number which has no association with any real unit of energy. All values of energy from relativistic mechanics are, therefore, fictitious. The implication is grave. The well known equation: E = mc² and the central identity of relativistic mechanics: E² = (pc)² + m²c⁴ are now invalidated. The quantum electrodynamics, the Standard Model of particle physics are now highly questionable. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN where protons are propelled to near the speed of light, the purported energy of the relativistic protons is 6.5TeV, but the real value is only 470MeV - the reported energy being inflated by a factor of 15,000. The Kaufmann-Bucherer-Neumann experiments were not evidence for a mass varying with speed; they showed only a contradiction between the Lorentz force law with Newton’s force law. The correct conclusion is not a failure of invariant mass of Newtonian mechanics, but evidence of failure of the Lorentz force law at relativistic speed conditions. Nature does not seem to favor any relativistic mechanics. We may have to fall back on our old Newtonian mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3064] viXra:1810.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 02:51:57

### 1908 Bucherer Experiment And The Lorentz Force Law

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 12 Pages. English; with Chinese translation

The Bucherer experiment of 1908 was not experimental proof of a relativistic mass varying with speed, but proof that electromagnetism and the Lorentz force law fail under relativistic speed conditions. Our conclusions come from a novel re-examination of the experiment based on three different interpretations of New ton’s second law as applied to the experiment and to analyze the implications for each of: (1) force∝dp/dt (2) force=relativistic_mass×acceleration (3) the classical f = ma The new interpretation now shows a constant charge-mass ratio for all relativistic speed; both charge and mass would be speed invariant. New relativistic force laws had to be proposed to be consistent with the experimental findings; the Lorentz force law is now: F = q((1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) E + √(1-v⁴/c⁴) (v x B) ); the Coulomb’s law is: F = (1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) (1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²; The Coulomb’s law has an additional scalar factor dependent on the relative velocity between the charges; for small speed, the form is: F = (1+½v²/c²)(1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²; This enables the formula for the force between parallel current-carrying conductors: F_dl = μ₀/(2πR)i₁i₂dl, be derived free of the concept of the magnetic field. A real possibility exists for a formulation of a revolutionary Newtonian electric theory free of magnetism and the Biot-Savart law.Also,the Bucherer experiment could have been an experimental verification of the relativistic Lorentz force law if the predicted speeds of the electrons had been verified through direct time-of-flight measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3063] viXra:1810.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 02:56:40

### Mass Energy Equivalence Not Experimentally Verified

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

The notion of mass-energy equivalence and its mathematical expression through the famous equation E = mc² predates Einstein when he introduced special relativity in 1905. It has to be noted that E = mc² has no rigorous theoretical basis; it is only a pure hypothesis not related to any physical theory. The thesis of this paper is that there is no incontrovertible experimental verification of mass-energy equivalence. The Year_Of_Physics_2005 ‘Direct Test Of E = mc²’ published in Nature 2005 claims a verification of the equation to an accuracy of 0.00004%. The experimenters misunderstood the very nature of the experiment that they carried out. It was not a verification of E = mc², but just another experiment to deduce the mass of the neutron. To date,we have not measured the true mass of the neutron to any degree of accuracy; we only have a deduced estimate of the neutron mass based on the mass-energy equivalence of E = mc² .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3062] viXra:1809.0598 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 11:07:43

### Peculiar Signaling Properties of the Tau and Mu Leptons and W and Z Bosons and More

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: It is noticed that 4 of the known particle types (2 leptons and 2 bosons) show unusual signaling properties. The universe has also apparently cycled 4 times in its history.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3061] viXra:1809.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 21:17:26

### Atoms of Space and Energy of Knot

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

If the space consists of Wilson loops, then in some cases the nodes will have energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3060] viXra:1809.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 14:28:17

### On the Statistical Physics of Space-Time Events, and the Arrow of Time

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

In accordance with the domain of special relativity, we construct a partition function of statistical physics over space-time events. We then study it in the context in time and space, and show that it reformulates the traditional arrow of time to an arrow of space-time. Using Fermi-Dirac statistics, we find that the new arrow essentially describes a " waterfall " of space-time events. This " waterfall " recedes in space-time at the speed of light towards the direction of the future as it " flood " local space with events. The framework augments the standard description of time given by the arrow of time to one formally able to distinguish between three " modes " of macroscopic time: the past, the present and the future, represented by space-like entropy, light-like entropy, and time-like entropy, respectively, and in a manner consistent with our experience of said modes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3059] viXra:1809.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 22:54:15

### Supermassive Black Holes

Authors: Kenneth Dalton

In the following black hole model, electrons and positrons form a neutral gas which is confined by gravitation. The smaller masses are supported against gravity by electron degeneracy pressure. Larger masses are supported by ideal gas and radiation pressure. In each case, the gas is a polytrope which satisfies the Lane-Emden equation. Solutions are found that yield the physical properties of black holes, for the range 1000 to 100 billion solar masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3058] viXra:1809.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 04:55:04

### Zmodyfikowana Dynamika Newtonowska

Authors: Dariusz Dudało

Zmodyfikowana dynamika newtonowska
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3057] viXra:1809.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 10:59:36

### Origin of the Inertial Mass (I): Scalar Gravitational Theory

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González

We will deduce the induction forces obtained from the field equation of Nordstrom's scalar gravitational theory and investigate whether they can explain the origin of the forces of inertia acting on a body when it is accelerated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3056] viXra:1809.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 11:04:45

### Origin of the Inertial Mass (Ii): Vector Gravitational Theory

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González

We will deduce the inductive forces of a vectorial gravitational theory and we will study whether these forces can be identified with the forces of inertia that act on a body when it is accelerated
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3055] viXra:1809.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-24 09:10:47

### A Derivation of the Kerr–Newman Metric Using Ellipsoid Coordinate Transformation

Authors: Yu-Ching, Chou

The Kerr–Newman metric describes a special rotating charged mass and is the most general solution for the asymptotically stable “black-hole” solution in the Einstein–Maxwell equations in general relativity. Because these are nonlinear partial differential equations, it is difficult to find an exact analytical solution other than spherical symmetry. This study presented a new derivation of the Kerr–Newman metric which is an extension of the authors’ previous research. Using the ellipsoid symmetry of space-time in the Kerr metric, an ellipsoidal coordinate transformation method was performed and the Kerr–Newman metric was more intuitively obtained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3054] viXra:1809.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 02:13:47

### One Way Speed Of Light Based on Wineland's Laser Cooling Experiment

Authors: Eric Su

Based on David Wineland's experiment in 1978, a laser beam points at an electromagnetcally trapped magnesium ion. The frequency of the laser light in the rest frame of the laser becomes a different frequency in the rest frame of the ion. If this new frequency matches the absorption frequency of the ion, the light will be absorbed by the ion. The wavelength is independent of reference frame. Therefore, the faster the ion moves toward the laser, the higher the frequency detected by the ion will be.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3053] viXra:1809.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 03:08:59

### A Wrong Formula of Fizeau

Authors: Emil Gigov

The experiment of Fizeau has nothing to do with the theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3052] viXra:1809.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-18 08:41:11

### The World Lines of a Dust Collapsar

Authors: Trevor W. Marshall

In a previous article it was shown that the end state for the dust metric of Oppenheimer and Snyder has most of its mass concentrated just inside the gravitational radius; it is proposed that the resulting object be considered as an idealized shell collapsar. Here the treatment is extended to include the family of interior metrics described by Choquet-Bruhat. The end state is again a shell collapsar, and its structure depends on the density pro…le at the beginning of the collapse. What is lacking in most previous commentaries on the Oppenheimer- Snyder article is the recognition that Oppenheimer and Snyder matched the time coordinate at the surface, and that implies a …nite upper limit for the comoving time coordinate inside the collapsar. A collapse process having all the matter going inside the gravitational radius would require comoving times which go outside that upper limit.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3051] viXra:1809.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-18 15:52:28

### Origin of Universe, Theory of Everything and the Origin of Consciousness: Concepts of Existence Are Inherently Philosophically, Scientifically and Metaphysically Incomplete. HAWKING’S and GODEL’S Incompleteness.

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 24 Pages. The eighth paper under theory of everything.

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3050] viXra:1809.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:28:14

### Un Inconsistency Between Light Speed Invariance and Causal Relations

Authors: Luk Rossey

If the speed of light is independent of the movement of its source, then it should make no difference at all when clocks are synchronized using light sources at rest or moving ones. It seems it does. When clocks are synchronized in two reference frames, moving relatively to one another, the causal relations between two particular events will depend on whether sources at rest or moving ones have been used. This inconsistency will appear solid evidence that the speed of light can never be invariant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3049] viXra:1809.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 11:57:37

### The Accelerating Expansion of the Universe is an Observational Error in the Measurement of the co-Moving Distant, as Well as the Measurement of the Velocity of Recession.

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

Abstract The observation of the Universe at the present epoch will only give the rate of the expansion of the Universe at present era and produce one value of the Hubble constant by any observer in any galaxy in the cosmos. The expansion rate of the Universe is not obtainable for the past or the future of the Universe by observation; it can only be calculated by the fact that the invers of the Hubble constant is the age of the Universe at any period. One of the fundamental pillars of the cosmology is the Hubble constant and the inverse of it is the age of the Universe: , this relationship will be violated by observation that the Universe’s expansion is accelerating. This is fundamental that any epoch any observer on any galaxy in the Universe by looking at all the distant galaxies will measure the velocity of recession divided by Co-moving distant will obtain the value of the Hubble constant precisely the same exact value. The value of the Hubble constant is only constant at a particular epoch by all the observers in the Universe and decays as the passage of time according to the relationship: .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3048] viXra:1809.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 13:03:25

### Blueshift and the Antigravitation

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo

In this theory it is shown that the universe does not expand. The equation that we derive is equivalent to the equation m = a (t)^2 from the book SEEING RED written by the scientist Halton Harp with the replacement M'= a and |delta r| = t^2
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3047] viXra:1809.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 15:35:04

### Question on Iterated Limits in Relativity

Authors: Valeriy Dvoeglazov

Two iterated limits are not equal each other, in general. Thus, we present an example when the massless limit of the function of E, vec p, m does not exist in some calculations within quantum field theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3046] viXra:1809.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-12 01:24:56

### Smolin Sir, I Have the Answers-Part-II, Alternative Cosmology: Redshift of Light Yes, Expansion of the Universe No! Part-a and Part-B

Authors: S. k. Malhotra
Comments: 49 Pages. a paper that changes phyics and cosmology completely!

In the history of physics, ideas on space and time have changed the course of physics a number of times; this is another such event. This time, we postulate ‘space and time’ as a flow of quantum gravity energy, having the absolute velocity c (same as the velocity of light), where time is the delay in the spread of space (delay from infinite velocity flow, when there would be no time), such a flow has to have a reverse cycle, as energy creating it (howsoever large it might be, has to be limited and limited energy can only create a limited space and time energy spread) and the reverse cycle is that of the creation of fundamental particles. This explanation of the universe (space and time not spacetime), as energy flow having a reverse cycle as its base, tells us that the idea of an expanding universe is prime facie wrong. The problem has been that we have gone along too far with the perception of the relativistic world that Einstein built over 100 years ago. Einstein had no hesitation in accepting the idea of absoluteness of the velocity of light but never thought of giving the same absoluteness to space (and time) as a flow having the same absolute velocity c (the universal constant of nature). Thus, the problem with cosmology is not something contained in the subject but with things, it inherited from physics; they take physics given to us by great minds like Einstein (and Bohr on quantum mechanics) for over the 100 years as a gospel truth and have not questioned it seriously ever. Physicist incorrect conclusions have become the bread and butter of cosmology; cosmologists and physicists thus see the universe without the essential part of it: as an absolute flow of quantum gravity. This new reasoning on space and time—as a flow of energy--leads us to show that expansion of the universe is only an appearance, reality is far away from it. And why is it only an appearance? The argument, in brief, is as follows: One, the universe is so large that we cannot see the edges, light from the edges takes far too long to reach us, there is a theoretical limit to possible visibility, thus, we have to refute its unlimitedness by theoretical considerations only; the reality is non-observable. Two, the process is dark, it is range of invisible (before charge emerged), the process of creation of charge (the reflection of light starts with it) has not yet taken place; it is the elusive dark energy that constitutes 74% of the total energy of the universe. We never connected space and time to flow of energy, and so did not find its connection either to its limitedness or to its dark nature (dark energy). Three, the space energy flow has a reverse process which leads to the formation of fundamental particles we have not included it in the totality of the processes of the universe, the former is the dark energy and the initial part of the reverse process—till it reaches the state of ionisation-- is dark matter. In the continuity of the cycle of space flow and its reversal to matter forms, ionisation happens at a particular point and visibility comes through along with; ionisation is a later event (which, as we explain later when we come to explaining the reverse process and with it enters visibility). It is this reverse process which creates fundamental particles (no big bang, the creation of particles is here and now). With no idea of space as energy flow and no idea of the reverse process, physicists could never take the step in the direction of the correct understanding of the ‘dark energy’ or ‘dark matter’. Along with the correct understanding of the dark matter and the dark energy, enters another conclusion of great importance: the limitedness of the universe means it is closed from all ends, it is like a crucible of huge dimensions, thus CMB is not radiation from primordial past, it is something which is happening here and now. Thus, one correction—space is an absolute flow of quantum gravity, emerging probably from the binary black holes-- changes all our understanding of cosmology. This is one stone—space is an absolute flow of quantum gravity—that kills (correctly explains) four birds (issues): explains the not expanding universe, explain what dark energy is, explain what dark matter is and it tells us that CMB is not radiation from primordial past. The lack of one entity—absoluteness of space and time—has led us to the wrong conclusion on each of the four issues, biggest of all being: the inflationary universe (and its subsequent conclusion to its Big Bang creation).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3045] viXra:1809.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 10:59:43

### The Cosmological Rotation Reversal and the G\"{o}del-Brahe Model: the Modifications of the G\"{o}del Metric

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil

The General Relativistic G\"{o}del-Brahe model visualizes the universe rotating with angular velocity $2 \pi$ radians/day - around a stationary earth. The wave function of this model of universe $\psi_{Univ}$, has two chiral states - clockwise and anti clockwise. Due to instabilities in the electromagnetic fields, the wave function can tunnel between the two states. G\"{o}del-Rindler model with a heigth varying acceleration gives the gravitational field of the earth. G\"{o}del-Obukhov model with a sinusoidally varying scale factor gives the yearly north-south motion of the sun. G\"{o}del-Randall-Sundram model with an angular velocity varying with height, gives the yearly rotation of sun with respect to the back ground of the fixed stars. Confinement of light rays due to rotation in the G\"{o}del universe, coupled with an appropriate mapping, generates the illusion of sphericity over a flat earth - with half of earth lit by sun light and the other half in darkness. Finally a metric combining all these properties is given. Discussion of further work is given, namely - (1) Origin of earth's magnetic field due to a charged G\"{o}del universe - with a relation to the Van Allen radiation belt, (2) Geomagnetic reversals due to reversals of cosmological rotation, (3) Caismir energy in the charged G\"{o}del type universe and the energy density required for the G\"{o}del-Brahe model and (4) Behaviour of Causality in G\"{o}del universe and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3044] viXra:1809.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 23:57:04

### Kinematics Atoms of Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

Chaos and the motion of space atoms, energy of topological knot.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3043] viXra:1809.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-08 23:15:16

### One Way Speed Of Light Based on Anderson's Experiment

Authors: Eric Su

Based on Wilmer Anderson's experiment in 1937, the light detector is put in motion relatively to the mirror. Two light pulses are emitted from the mirror toward the detector. The elapsed time between two emissions is recorded on the oscilloscope. This elapsed time is larger if the detector moves away from the mirror faster. By comparing the elapsed time in the rest frame of the mirror to the elapsed time in the rest frame of the detector, the speed of light pulse in the rest frame of the mirror is found to be different from the speed of light pulse in the rest frame of the detector.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3042] viXra:1809.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 06:09:33

### A Fully Relativistic Description of Stellar or Planetary Objects Orbiting a Very Heavy Central Mass

Authors: Lluís Bel

A fully relativistic numerical program is used to calculate the advance of the peri-helium of Mercury or the deflection of light by the Sun is here used also to discuss the case of S2, a star orbiting a very heavy central mass of the order of $4.3\,10^6$ solar masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3041] viXra:1809.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 12:04:03

### Theory of Everything: First Ultimate Concept in Our Scientific Era: Scope, Implications for Relativity, Quantum Theory, and the Standard Model, and Theories of Origin of the Universe

Authors: Abed Peerally
Comments: 7 Pages. ORIGINAL PAPER ON THE THEORY OF EVERTHING

The Theory of Everything is not a kind of master concept meant to integrate relativity and quantum theory, or to formulate the Grand Unified Theory. Nor is it a concept about the merging the forces and/or particles in one unified theory. In fact, these kinds of unified concepts are not very profound and are far from being a Theory of Everything, capable of describing the ultimate nature of our universe and existence. This is because the universe is now, in the beginning of the 21st century, starting to reveal its scientific nature, but an awful lot remains to be seen, perhaps in the decades, centuries and millennia of the future. We are still at a very early phase of elucidating its fundamental nature. What we know about Einstein’s relativity and quantum theory is a fraction of what is potentially possible. The nature of forces, particles, mass, gravitation is still fragmentary, while space-time and consciousness are hardly beginning to be investigated systematically. These are profoundly complex and elusive phenomena, and that is why we need to be capable of formulating the first version of quite a fairly basic Theory of Everything, the best we are able to achieve in our present time, which is what the author’s second book will present in a fairly detailed treatment of the ultimate philosophical and scientific organisation of our realities of existence. There will wide scope for physicists, cosmologists and mathematicians to evolve new approaches and research projects to start expanding, as deeply as possible, our understanding of what we really are and how the universe was created. It is inevitable that a final Theory of Everything must integrate science and philosophy into a universal scheme capable of telling us practically everything about existence, and in so doing it would indicate how the universe and its realities originated. The whole approach must be, philosophically and scientifically, unbiased and very objective, to satisfy the criteria that dictate what good science is and to avoid the fictitious kind of pitfalls that seem to be of common occurrence in modern cosmology, which have prompted various eminent thinkers to talk about the end of Physics. The absolute Ultimate Theory of Everything is not an objective attainable in our period of existence, but could only be the result of a process across time, a natural development across the ages, and will be what it is at any time, except that it is continuously evolving, due to new scientific and 2 philosophical data and interpretations. It is a bit awkward, in our still premature scientific culture, to look for an appellation for what is clearly a very ambitious concept, one that is too elusive at a time when so little is known about the nature of our universe. For instance, calling a concept “The Theory of Everything” is unreasonable, for our present times are too unprepared for such an impossible mission. If we do use it, then it has to be understood, in any case, that what we call the Theory of Everything is something that is continuously evolving and we have absolutely no idea when our Planet will be satisfied it has in fact found the Ultimate Theory of Everything. For this reason, the author has to refer to his concept of everything as The First Theory of Everything, because strictly speaking, we have not had a scientific Theory of Everything that is really the one the scientific community would be expecting. The author is quite aware that the Standard Model, Einstein’s Laws of Relativity and Quantum Theory are still largely incomplete, and there is nothing we can do to have the comprehensive mastery of the nature of our universe, even in the next several centuries. Realities like matter, forces, particles, space, space-time, mass, gravity, micro and macro realities of the universe, the Higgs phenomenon, and particularly the existence and nature of consciousness, among other facets of our realities, will take centuries and millennia, to be fairly well explained. There is no doubt that there are complicated schemes of existence that will require an awful lot of new physics and mathematics before we are satisfied we can begin to really understand the origin and the ultimate nature of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[2211] viXra:1811.0071 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-06 07:41:06

### Lorentz Force in Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Sangwha Yi

In the Special Relativity theory, we tell undergraduate how Lorentz 4-force is invariant in Special Relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2210] viXra:1811.0048 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-13 03:32:58

### Falsification of the Special Relativity with the Observed Brightness of Type Ia Supernovae

Authors: Dino Bruniera

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected, that is calculated with the formula supported by the Scientific Community. The Scientific Community states that this fact shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating. But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula is not correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is due to the recession speed of the location of the space where the Earth is located at the reception of photons, with respect to the location where they were emitted. And since the cosmological redshift is considered as the factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, said apparent brightness not only doesn’t prove that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, but also shows that the Special Relativity is not compatible with the observations and, therefore, is falsified.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2209] viXra:1811.0048 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 03:30:13

### Falsification of the Special Relativity with the Observed Brightness of Type Ia Supernovae

Authors: Dino Bruniera

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae is about 25% lower than that expected, that is calculated with the formula supported by the Scientific Community. The Scientific Community states that this fact shows that the speed of expansion of the Universe is accelerating. But with this paper I will show that, instead, it shows that the formula is not correct, because it considers the cosmological redshift as a factor of expansion of space, while it is due to the recession speed of the location of the space where the Earth is located at the reception of photons, with respect to the location where they were emitted. And since the cosmological redshift is considered as a factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, the proof that it is not, falsifies the Special Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2208] viXra:1811.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-13 03:29:18

### Hypothesis Based on the Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space

Authors: Dino Bruniera

In “Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space”, published on November 2nd, 2018, I affirmed that from it we can derive some hypotheses on the various phenomena of the Universe. And now, with this paper, I propose to expose these hypotheses, which explain various phenomena of the Universe in a way compatible with said theory and more consistent with the observations compared to that currently supported by the Scientific Community. Here are, in short, the hypotheses. The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause the Universe to expand. Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enabling the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further. Gravity is due to the phenomenon that each object tends to move towards the more expanded space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects. The expansion of space is seen from General Relativity, as the curvature of the space-time, therefore, since it is the same phenomenon, the same physical laws are applied. I also present a modification to the universal gravity formula, to make it compatible with this model of the Universe. Speed of light depends on the degree of expansion of space quanta in the locations in which it transits, meaning that the greater the expansion, the lower the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of expansion, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of expansion of space quanta was minor, speed of light was greater. Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. I also present a formula for calculating the apparent brightness, compatible with the observations of type Ia supernovae with high redshift. Moreover, I demonstrate that considering that the cosmological redshift is due to the expansion of space, as the Scientific Community currently supports, the apparent brightness of celestial objects with high redshift, cannot be justified. And since the cosmological redshift is considered as a factor of expansion of space, to respect what claim the Special Relativity, said apparent brightness not only doesn’t prove that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, but shows that the Special Relativity is not compatible with the observations and, therefore, is falsified.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2207] viXra:1811.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 03:24:11

### Hypothesis Based on the Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space

Authors: Dino Bruniera

In “Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space”, published on November 2nd, 2018, I affirmed that from it we can derive some hypotheses on the various phenomena of the Universe. And now, with this paper, I propose to expose these hypotheses, which explain various phenomena of the Universe in a way compatible with said theory and more consistent with the observations compared to that currently supported by the Scientific Community. Here are, in short, the hypotheses. The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause the Universe to expand. Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enabling the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further. Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects, with the laws relative to General Relativity. I also present a modification to the universal gravity formula, to make it compatible with this model of the Universe. Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater. Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. I also present a formula for calculating the apparent brightness compatible with the observations of type Ia supernovae with high redshift. Moreover, I demonstrate that considering that the cosmological redshift is due to the expansion of space, as the Scientific Community currently supports, the apparent brightness of celestial objects with high redshift, cannot be justified.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2206] viXra:1811.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-09 02:01:06

### Apparent Contraction and Expansion of Space Relative to Absolutely Moving Observer - New Explanation of the Phenomena of Stellar Aberration, Doppler Effect and Mercury Anomalous Perihelion Advance

Could Albert Einstein be wrong about absolute motion ,absolute time and gravity but right about space contraction and the speed of light?Perhaps the great theoretical physicist is not completely wrong. In this paper, a new law of transformation of reference frames for absolutely moving observers is proposed. We may call this Apparent Source Transformation ( AST ). With this transformation, the space in front of an absolutely moving observer apparently contracts whereas the space behind an absolutely moving observer expands. Profoundly, AST changes current understanding of the phenomenon of stellar aberration. Stellar aberration occurs because of compression (or expansion ) of space in front of ( behind ) an absolutely moving observer. The apparent change in position of the star is not in the direction of absolute velocity, but in the opposite direction! Mercury’s anomalous perihelion advance can be explained by expansion of space as seen by the Sun and as seen by Mercury. AST also provides physical explanation for a new theory already proposed by this author: Exponential Doppler Effect of light:f ' = f eV/c ,λ ' = λ e-V/c. This agrees with the constancy of the speed of light: f 'λ' = f λ= c and can explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. Not only frequency but also wavelength changes for an absolutely moving observer and the change in wave length for a moving observer can only be explained by apparent expansion or contraction of space as seen by an absolutely moving observer.AST has differences from and similarities to Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) and/or Lorentz Contraction ( LC ) as follows:1. AST postulates that the speed of light is constant c irrespective of source or observer uniform motion, but the group velocity of light varies with mirror velocity 2. AST postulates absolute time 3. According to AST, absolute motion exists, but the ether doesn't exist as we know it 4. According to AST, space apparently contracts in front of an absolutely moving observer and expands behind him/her, only as seen by the absolutely moving observer, whereas space (or length ) only contracts, both in the forward and backward directions, as seen by the 'stationary' observer, in SRT and LC. In AST, space contraction is applied only when objects are considered as sources( sources of light, EM waves, electrostatic fields, gravity ). In Apparent Source Transformation, it is assumed that only the position of the light source will apparently change relative to the detector/observer but the mirrors, the beam splitter and all other parts of the apparatus will be assumed to be at their actual/physical positions to analyze the experiment. 5. In AST, it is space itself that contracts or expands relative to a moving observer regarding the position of sources 6.AST gives an exponential law of transformation of space, and is different from Lorentz transformations. 7. In AST, the observer is the light detecting device or the human directly detecting the light and light speed experiments should always be analyzed from the perspective of the inertial observer. More precisely, the observer is the atom detecting the light. Apparent Source Transformation evolved from a theory called Apparent Source Theory already proposed by this author. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion of the Michelson-Morley experiment is to create an apparent change in position of the light source as seen by ( relative to ) the observer/detector.The resulting fringe shift is the same as if the source was actually /physically moved to the same position. Intuitively, we can guess that actually changing the source position will not result in significant fringe shift or gives only small fringe shift. Apparent Source Theory not only accounted for the 'null' fringe shift of the Michelson-Morley experiment, but also for the small fringe shifts observed such as in the original Michelson experiment of 1881 and the Miller experiments. It explains many other light speed experiments, including the Sagnac effect, the Marinov experiment, the Silvertooth experiment, the Bryan G Wallace experiment, the Roland De Witte and other experiments.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2205] viXra:1811.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-04 10:35:06

### Theory on the Motion Related to the Expanding Space

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: 8 Pages.In the second version of the paper I only inserted the links to two papers published after the first version.

With this article I propose to demonstrate, through the CMBR, a theory for which the light is manifested in the expanding space, so its speed is isotropic only towards it and not towards the celestial objects in motion respect to it. Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is given by the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time, as a function of its speed with respect to the medium in witch the light is manifested, which in this theory corresponds to the expanding space. Hence now Special Relativity is replaceable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in space and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2204] viXra:1810.0470 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-09 07:35:39

### About Total Relativity and the Meaning of the 5th Dimension for the Material Particle

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra

An introduction to the theory of Total Relativity as potential fields 5-dimensional with Riemann energy distribution not flat, with a natural deduction of the Planck-Einstein relation and the quantization of the Gravitational Field of the 1st Schwarzschild Solution. Is revealed as a conclusion the existence of mass of the photon as the fundamental particle mediating all forces of Nature.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2203] viXra:1810.0470 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-02 14:18:30

### About Total Relativity and the Meaning of the 5th Dimension for the Material Particle

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra

An introduction to the Total Relativity theory as potential fields with Riemann flat energy distribution, with a natural derivation of the Planck-Einstein relation and the quantization of the Gravitational Field of the 1st Schwarzschild Solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2202] viXra:1810.0470 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-01 11:33:17

### About Total Relativity and the Meaning of the 5th Dimension for the Material Particle

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra

An introduction to Total Relativity theory as potential fields with Riemann flat energy distribution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2201] viXra:1810.0444 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-28 12:22:14

### Is Time Misconception of the Transformations Possible?

Authors: Mesut Kavak

Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual causative phenomenon? Is it possible to make a wrong conception for time and speed even if the phenomenon we advocate is actually true?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2200] viXra:1810.0444 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-27 06:25:11

### Is Time Misconception of the Transformations Possible?

Authors: Mesut Kavak

Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual causative phenomenon? Is it possible to make a wrong conception for time and speed even if the phenomenon we advocate is actually true?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2199] viXra:1810.0366 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-24 15:58:11

### Gravitational Catastrophe and Dark Matter

Authors: Mesut Kavak

I have been working for a long time about basic laws of physics. During this time I noticed, that gravity does not work as Newtonian. Distance and gravitational force relation changes over distance. The attraction properties change for each point of free space, and have some limits. The attraction changes due to some values between 1/r and 1/r^2 even for the existent furthest distance. This work aims to analyze and discuss this phenomenon.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2198] viXra:1810.0366 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-23 07:31:03

### Gravitational Catastrophe and Dark Matter

Authors: Mesut Kavak

I have been working for a long time about basic laws of physics. During this time I noticed, that gravity does not work as Newtonian. Distance and gravitational force relation changes over distance. The attraction properties change for each point of free space, and have some limits. The attraction changes due to some values between 1/r and 1/r^2 even for the existent furthest distance. This work aims to analyze and discuss this phenomenon.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2197] viXra:1810.0357 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-22 09:36:12

### Can Acceleration Phase Account for the Observed Accelerating Expansion of the Universe?

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi

A new cosmological era began with the discovery of accelerating expansion of the Universe. The deviation of the Hubble diagram from exhibiting a linear distance-redshift relation at high redshifts provides the very crucial clue to support this discovery. In this paper I present a theory to account for the observed accelerating expansion of the Universe. I discuss that the Universe should attain a constant rate of expansion in future, given the linear distance-redshift relation being obeyed by the receding large-scale structures within the local Universe, suggesting constant recessional velocities. I compare the local Universe within which the receding large-scale structures exhibit the linear distance-redshift relation in accordance with the Hubble diagram, and the remote Universe within which the receding large-scale structures deviate from exhibiting the expected linearity. There may be a simple terminology termed by me as “acceleration phase” that would probably account for the observed acceleration, particularly for the receding large-scale structures belonging to the remote Universe that exhibit high redshifts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2196] viXra:1810.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-25 08:05:44

### The Michelson-Morley Experiment and Classical Analysis of Reflection of Light From a Moving Mirror - Implications for the Lorentz Transformation Equations

This paper presents an argument that the conventional analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX) might be only approximately correct but not strictly accurate. Accurate classical analysis would require revision of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This new analysis may have even more far reaching consequences: if the new classical analysis requires different length contraction formulas for different experimental setups to give a null result, this would lead to absurdity of the whole concept of length contraction and Lorentz transformation. The standard ether analysis of the MMX implies a law of reflection of light from a moving mirror and this may not agree with the classical analysis. Accurate ether analysis of MMX should be based on the classical analysis of reflection of light from a moving mirror, which should be derived from fundamental classical wave principles, and not from the requirement that the Michelson-Morley experiment should give a null fringe shift.The significant divergence of the light beam has been neglected ( overlooked ) in the standard analysis. The fallacy in the standard analysis is that it presumes that the transverse light will not miss the observer/detector, which is possible only if we consider the finite divergence of the beam, but ignores the beam divergence in the analysis and goes on to extraordinary conclusions ( length contraction ). Michelson's analogy of a man swimming across a river is the original fallacy.The standard relativistic explanation is that length contraction of the beam splitter will compensate for the change in angle of reflection. However, even if the length contraction formula is applied to the whole apparatus, including the beam splitter, the Michelson-Morley experiment will never give a null result because the classical analysis and its result is complicated and cannot be compensated by the simple Lorentz contraction formula. The resulting complex formula for the difference in path lengths of the longitudinal and transverse light beams may not even allow the application of length contraction concept, and modification of the simple Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This will invalidate the whole concept of length contraction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2195] viXra:1810.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-22 08:43:14

### The Michelson-Morley Experiment and Classical Analysis of Reflection of Light From a Moving Mirror - Implications for the Lorentz Transformation Equations

This paper presents an argument that the conventional analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX) might be only approximately correct but not strictly accurate. Accurate classical analysis would require revision of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This new analysis may have even more far reaching consequences: if the new classical analysis requires different length contraction formulas for different experimental setups to give a null result, this would lead to absurdity of the whole concept of length contraction and Lorentz transformation. The standard ether analysis of the MMX implies a law of reflection of light from a moving mirror and this may not agree with the classical analysis, which existed even before the conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Accurate ether analysis of MMX should be based on the classical analysis of reflection of light from a moving mirror, which should be derived from fundamental classical wave principles, and not from the requirement that the Michelson-Morley experiment should give a null fringe shift. The significant divergence of the light beam has been neglected ( overlooked ) in the standard analysis. The fallacy in the standard analysis is that it presumes that the transverse light will not miss the observer/detector, which is possible only if we consider the finite divergence of the beam, but ignores the beam divergence in the analysis and goes on to extraordinary conclusions ( length contraction ). Michelson's analogy of a man swimming across a river is the original fallacy. The standard relativistic explanation is that length contraction of the beam splitter will compensate for the change in angle of reflection. However, even if the length contraction formula is applied to the whole apparatus, including the beam splitter, the Michelson-Morley experiment will never give a null result because the classical analysis and its result is complicated and cannot be compensated by the simple Lorentz contraction formula.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2194] viXra:1810.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-21 03:56:57

### From Maxwell’s Equations to Electro-Magnetic Waves

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 6 Pages. version 3 has a rewritten chapter 4

This article shows how Electro-Magnetic source and wave are related and why the propagation velocity of light in vacuum is c, exclusively relative to its source.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2193] viXra:1810.0083 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-08 07:29:06

### Geometrical Formulation of Physics.

Authors: Johan Noldus

We define a unique geometrical Poisson bracket for classical physics of point particles and generalize this to the commutator algebra of quantum theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2192] viXra:1810.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-08 13:34:11

### 1908 Bucherer Experiment And The Lorentz Force Law

Authors: chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 12 Pages. English; with Chinese translation

The Bucherer experiment of 1908 was not experimental proof of a relativistic mass varying with speed, but proof that electromagnetism and the Lorentz force law fail under relativistic speed conditions. Our conclusions come from a novel re-examination of the experiment based on three different interpretations of New ton’s second law as applied to the experiment and to analyze the implications for each of: (1) force∝dp/dt (2) force=relativistic_mass×acceleration (3) the classical f = ma The new interpretation now shows a constant charge-mass ratio for all relativistic speed; both charge and mass would be speed invariant. New relativistic force laws had to be proposed to be consistent with the experimental findings; the Lorentz force law is now: F = q((1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) E + √(1-v⁴/c⁴) (v x B) ); the Coulomb’s law is: F = (1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) (1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²; The Coulomb’s law has an additional scalar factor dependent on the relative velocity between the charges; for small speed, the form is: F = (1+½v²/c²)(1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²; This enables the formula for the force between parallel current-carrying conductors: F_dl = μ₀/(2πR)i₁i₂dl, be derived free of the concept of the magnetic field. A real possibility exists for a formulation of a revolutionary Newtonian electric theory free of magnetism and the Biot-Savart law.Also,the Bucherer experiment could have been an experimental verification of the relativistic Lorentz force law if the predicted speeds of the electrons had been verified through direct time-of-flight measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2191] viXra:1809.0523 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-22 10:25:44

### Origin of the Inertial Mass (Ii): Vector Gravitational Theory

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González

We deduce the inductive forces of a vectorial gravitational theory and we will study if these forces can be identified with the forces of inertia that act on a body when accelerated, as is required by the Mach's principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2190] viXra:1809.0523 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-11 05:11:22

### Origin of the Inertial Mass (Ii): Vector Gravitational Theory

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González

We deduce the inductive forces of a vectorial gravitational theory and we will study whether these forces can be identified with the forces of inertia that act on a body when it is accelerated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2189] viXra:1809.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-22 15:00:59

### Origin of Universe, Theory of Everything and the Origin of Consciousness: Concepts of Existence Are Inherently Philosophically, Scientifically and Metaphysically Incomplete. HAWKING’S Views on GODEL’S Incompleteness

Authors: Abed Peerally

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2188] viXra:1809.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-20 13:49:52

### One Way Speed Of Light Based on Anderson's Experiment

Authors: Eric Su
A fully relativistic numerical program is used to calculate the advance of the peri-helium of Mercury or the deflection of light by the Sun is here used also to discuss the case of S2, a star orbiting a very heavy central mass of the order of $4.3\,10^6$ solar masses.