**Previous months:**

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2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(12) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(16)

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2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(28) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(29) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(41) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(47)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(50) - 1603(41) - 1604(33) - 1605(33) - 1606(44) - 1607(20) - 1608(39) - 1609(47) - 1610(30) - 1611(47) - 1612(34)

2017 - 1701(30) - 1702(27) - 1703(41)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2412] **viXra:1703.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 06:01:12*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 173 Pages.

A new model and theoretical framework of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper. 1. For absolutely co-moving light source S and observer O, with uniform rectilinear motion, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the observer. The apparent source, just as the real source, is at rest relative to the observer and the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Therefore, the procedure of analysis of a light speed experiment in this case is to replace the real source by an apparent source and analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Once the real source is replaced with an apparent source to account for absolute velocity, we assume conventional emission theory, in which, the speed of light is constant relative to the (apparent) source and depends on mirror velocity. The position of the apparent source is determined by assuming the ether to calculate the time delay of light emitted by the real source and detected directly by the observer and interpreting the result as being due to an apparent change in the source position relative to the observer, rather than as being a result of varying speed of light which would be the case if the ether existed. In this paper it is revealed that the ether doesn’t exist but absolute motion does exist. 2. For all other cases/experiments in which the light source S, an observer A and mirrors have independent, arbitrary absolute and relative velocities, for uniform rectilinear motion and for accelerated motion, including rotation, the experiment is analyzed according to the following principle: an observer A who is at a given point relative to the light source, at a given instant of time, observes what a co-moving observer at that point is observing at that instant of time . A co-moving observer O is defined in this paper as an observer who is at a given point in the reference frame of the source and is at rest relative to the source and continues to move with the same velocity (magnitude and direction) as the velocity of the source at the instant of light emission. For example, to determine the time instant when light emitted by a source is observed by an arbitrary observer (A) with known initial position and motion (velocity and acceleration), we find a point relative to the source where a co-moving observer at that point observes light at the time instant that observer A is passing through that point. 3. The phase velocity of light is constant, independent of source, observer and mirror velocity. However, the group velocity of light is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity and on mirror velocity. 4. A new law of Exponential Doppler effect of light is proposed as: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c , where V is the source observer relative velocity. 5. Light has dual natures: local and non-local, constant (phase) velocity and variable ( group) velocity, behaving according to both ether theory and emission theory. Static electric and magnetic fields also have dual nature: finite and infinite speed of transmission 6. Inertia is electromagnetic radiation reaction. The speed of light is the universal limit on the absolute velocity of all physical objects in the universe. The mass (inertia) increase of electrons with velocity is due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction. As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. 7. Gravity is a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. 8. Absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The universal principle that applies to all light speed experiments is : an observer at a given point relative to the source, at a given instant of time , observes the same light phenomenon being observed by a co-moving observer at that point, at that instant of time. However, a more convenient procedure for experiments involving rectilinear motions is : 1. Replace the real source by an apparent source 2. Analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source; i.e. once the real source is replaced by an apparent source , we apply (modified) emission theory in which the group velocity is constant relative to the apparent source and depends on mirror velocity, but the phase velocity is always constant. Physically ( intuitively ) the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the real source, due to absolute motion of the source. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and absolute motion theory. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + V in the backward direction and c - V in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to an observer does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . This is why the group velocity of light has been found to be independent of source velocity in moving source experiments; the (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2411] **viXra:1703.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:51:56*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Web site : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/eng/zhp_en_htm3.html

It is believed that the Pioneer satellites anomaly could be resolved by the orbit
determination programs (ODP) if some particular elements of the satellite that were
omitted or rejected as non applicable were taken into account. This is not the case
and up to now, not a single proposition has been able to resolve the anomalous
acceleration that plagued those satellites. We show that the Pioneer anomaly is
in fact a natural and universal constant also remarked as an apparent numerical
coincidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2410] **viXra:1703.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:58:44*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Site web : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/fra/zhp_fr_htm3.html

On croit que l’anomalie des satellites Pioneer serait expliquée en tenant compte
de certains éléments omis ou rejetés comme non pertinents dans les programmes de
calcul des orbites des satellites (Orbit Determination Program). Il n’en est rien, et
jusqu’à maintenant, aucune proposition en ce sens n’a réussi de façon concluante
à expliquer cette accélération. Nous montrons que ce qui est apparu comme une
coïncidence numérique n’en n’est pas une, mais n’est en fait qu’une constante
universelle naturelle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2409] **viXra:1703.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 08:11:20*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

EVERYTHING IS EMERGENT

Space is NOT empty. There is an all encompassing lattice-type thread particle network in space. It is gravity centered -- Einstein called it Space-Time. Otherwise known as the Fabric of Space. (yes, the fabric of space must actually be made from something)

A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web made of the finest web-silk-thread filament. Now imagine a 3-D web.

It is made from individual yet connected thread particles and of course the web has tension on it (that's were gravity gets its pull).

Everything is a simple emergent property of the thread particle network.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2408] **viXra:1703.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 01:37:19*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The Hypersphere World – Universe Model (WUM) provides a mathematical framework that allows calculating the primary cosmological parameters of the World that are in good agreement with the most recent measurements and observations. WUM explains the experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics over the last decades: the age of the World and critical energy density; the gravitational parameter and Hubble’s parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the peak of the far-infrared background radiation; the concentration of intergalactic plasma and time delay of Fast Radio Bursts. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak); shows inter-connectivity of primary cosmological parameters of the World. WUM proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2407] **viXra:1703.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 12:11:54*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** Pages.

Prof. Reg Cahill has reported [1] that Random Event Generator (REG) devices can detect passage of dynamical 3-space waves. Herein we describe an attempt to ﬁnd additional evidence for this discovery, using data from a REG located in Perth, Australia and from another in Manchester, U.K., for ﬁfteen days centered on each full moon during a period of one year.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by ﬁtting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination, speed and associated standard deviations for the waves of each day.
Following this we examined the directions and speeds to determine if they were consistent with a real physical phenomena, rather than being artifacts of random correlations. To this end we made use of probability density plots and other statistical techniques.
On the way we recognized that wave orientation is not the same as 3-space ﬂow direction and that it is the latter rather than the former which is of principle interest. Geometry implies that variation of ﬂow speed will cause the detected speeds of wave fronts moving parallel to 3-space ﬂow to have larger standard deviations than those moving across the ﬂow. On this basis we preferentially selected the 50% of days with the largest speed standard deviations as being the most likely proxies for space ﬂow direction.
A probability density plot of directions for these days exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space ﬂow direction by Cahill [3] and Dayton Miller [8]. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inﬂow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with what one would expect of a real physical phenomena. The peak indicated a most probable galactic ﬂow direction of RA = 4.14 h, dec = −77.8 deg, and wave speed of 500 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2406] **viXra:1703.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 06:23:44*

**Authors:** Görnitz, Thomas

**Comments:** Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27468.00649

Some thirty years ago, the model of a closed cosmos expanding at the speed of light was develo-ped deriving from basic quantum-theoretical arguments. In this model, the equation of state reads ρ+3p=0 (ρ and p denoting cosmological energy density and pressure). At the core of the model, there are the quantum bits of absolute quantum information (AQI), the simplest of all possible quantum structures. Taken as the ultimate substance, referred to as protyposis, the AQI concept affords a unifying explanation of the structure of space and time and the evolution of the cosmos and its inventory.
Recent astrophysical investigations show that the protyposis model is in better agreement with the observation data than the present standard flat - Λ CDM model. Ad hoc assumptions such as Dark Energy and Inflation are dispensable.
The protyposis theory has been advanced to account for the formation of relativistic quantum particles from AQI bits. Moreover, a rationalization has been given of the General Theory of Rela-tivity and of the three non-gravitational forces.
Ultimately, the protyposis concept will allow us to understand the emergence of both matter and consciousness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2405] **viXra:1703.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-24 09:26:13*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Because the Einstein equation can't by itself determine the gravitational metric-tensor field, it is important to attempt to understand in explicit formulaic terms the coordinates which observational and empirical physical
scientists would naturally use in the presence of gravitation. Since Minkowski coordinates are the natural choice when gravitation is absent, we require that any candidate coordinate condition must be satisfied identically by the Minkowski tensor. To preserve symmetry to the extent feasible, we also require that any candidate coordinate condition must be Lorentz covariant (general coordinate-transformation covariance is of course ruled out for coordinate conditions). Other things being equal, we give preference to
simplicity in candidate coordinate conditions. Finally, we wish to eschew nearly all of the commonly used coordinate conditions because for the Schwarzschild solution they produce closed surfaces of nonzero extent where the time dilation factor is infinite. By systematic adherence to the above guidelines we manage to develop a straightforward but little-known coordinate condition, namely the fixing the metric-tensor field's determinant to its -1 Minkowski value, which allows the static Schwarzschild solution's spherical shell where the time-dilation factor is infinite to have exactly zero radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2404] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 23:32:27*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

abstract:shows a veiwpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2403] **viXra:1703.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:05:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the spinning cosmic loops built of the entangled Einstein-spacetime (ES) components, with centres overlapping with centres of galaxies, are the basic dark-matter (DM) structures. Their interactions with baryonic matter via weak interactions of leptons lead to the flat rotation curves of galaxies. Here, applying such mechanism, we derived universal law that relates actual baryonic masses of galaxies with radial accelerations of stars at a critical radius (for radii bigger than such radius, there dominates the baryon-DM interaction). We calculated as well a parameter at a critical scale that is consistent with observational data. We need to change our ideas about dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2402] **viXra:1703.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:10:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data suggest that the initial period of evolution of galaxies should be modified. Here, on the basis of the cosmology described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain in a very simple way why spins of massive galaxies are, generally, perpendicular to cosmic filaments whereas of dwarf galaxies are, generally, tangential to them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2401] **viXra:1703.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 14:27:22*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Based on the paths of signals emanating from a rotating point body, we find the equations and properties of the field that they form. Depending on the type of observer the field differs. The field is not central but varies in orientation and magnitude with both distance and angular velocity of rotation. The magnitude of the field in some cases forms a barrier away from the origin, which may be very strong depending on the angular velocity of rotation. The results apply both to microcosmos (sub-atomic level) and macrocosmos (cosmic level).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2400] **viXra:1703.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 11:29:24*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Electric Universe Theory (EUT) offers serious objections to the current concept of pulsars (neutron stars) as almost unbelievably dense, very small diameter, possibly incredibly rapidly rotating, collapsed star cores with densities comparable to an atomic nucleus, composed entirely of neutronium. Objections are both physical, phenomenological and geometrical/mathematical. This paper examines the last set, geometrical/mathematical, comparing what might derive from the current theory with that postulated by EUT, namely that “pulsars” are really binary “strobe” stars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2399] **viXra:1703.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 13:20:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2398] **viXra:1703.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 09:56:01*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Until the early twentieth century, the three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time were considered separate beings. In 1909, German mathematician H. Minkowski connected together space and time into single idea, creating a new the four-dimensional spacetime. We proposed the extension of this idea by the connection together the Minkowski four-dimensional spacetime and the mass density into the single idea, creating a new entity: the four-dimensional spacetime with the mass density. In this article we discussed the physical consequences of this new idea in terms of the gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2397] **viXra:1703.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 03:17:26*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ...........

The influence of the speed of motion of the satellite and the Earth relative to Jupiter is skipped by a Römer. The influence of distance is greatly exaggerated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2396] **viXra:1703.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 06:18:49*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The dark universe represents a concept of present physics and cosmology that regards whether great stellar systems or elementary particles. The first question, that has to be considered, concerns its effective existence because there are at present only a few experimental proofs and its existence is purely theoretical and it is due to the difference between total matter and energy predicted by theoretical calculations and those deriving from experimental measurements. The second question regards its physical nature. In general at least a part of dark matter is explained in the present physics by the gravitational theory like in the event of black holes. In the order of the Theory of Reference Frames (TR) dark matter, in all possible shapes including black holes, is explained by the relativistic theory of the Doppler Effect, whether for cosmological systems or for elementary particles and besides the Doppler Effect represents also an useful theoretical tool for explaining the physical behaviour of variable stars and galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2395] **viXra:1703.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 05:20:50*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this essay, light is shed on the Special Relativity hidden conflicts. The first part, consisting of the first five headings, will point out some of the Special Relativity self-contradictions in relation to its main five outcomes. The second part reveals the reasons beyond the Special Relativity inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2394] **viXra:1703.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-17 23:01:41*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A Universe without aim or intent, and without the brilliant but problematic theories of Einstein is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2393] **viXra:1703.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 15:29:59*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Translational symmetry in one-dimensional space requires the distance between two objects moving at equal speed under equal acceleration to be constant in time. However, motion between the object and the observer is relative. Therefore, this distance is constant in time for an accelerating observer. Consequently, the length of an accelerating object is constant in time. The length of an object is invariant to its motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2392] **viXra:1703.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 07:17:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, lead to conclusion that baryons in the early Universe efficiently condensed at the centres of dark matter halos when dark matter was less concentrated. It means that we must solve following cosmological problem: Was there a sufficiently long period during the mainstream Big Bang for concentration of baryonic matter, partially separated from dark matter, to create the discs of massive galaxies in very early Universe? Here we showed that new data are consistent with the evolution of massive galaxies presented within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The main features are as follows. The expansion of the Universe was separated in time from the inflation. The return shock wave after the inflation created the cosmic structure which looked as very big quasar (the Protoworld). Inside the torus of the Protoworld were created massive protogalaxies with supermassive black holes in their centres. Due to a phase transition of the Protoworld, its torus and supermassive central black hole transformed into dark matter. Only then there were the inflows of dark matter and dark energy into the baryonic protogalaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2391] **viXra:1703.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:18:32*

**Authors:** Rajiv Thapa

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A novel technique was introduced to re-investigate the “No Drama” conclusion of the Equivalence principle at the event horizon of the Schwarzschild Black Hole. It was found that the Equivalence principle has a different solution at the event horizon, on contrary to the popular belief that the gravitational effect on the observer at the horizon holds the similar properties as that to the observer travelling in the weaker gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2390] **viXra:1703.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:38:07*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The article shows that based on the obvious postulates, using the existing mathematical tools, an alternative theory of special relativity can be build. The results were obtained studying the invariance of a four-dimensional wave equation by the paravector calculus. As a field domain the complex space-time was selected. Its meaningfulness and implicit naturalness is shown on simple examples. The aim of the publication is to show that the physical space-time may be viewed from a different perspective, not known so far.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2389] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 04:05:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2388] **viXra:1703.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 08:51:06*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists since Einstein have assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is consistent with the Special Theory of Relativity. More specifically, they have always assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers, that obeys the Galilean transformation equations, is consistent with the non-Galilean Lorentz transformation equations. Einstein's assumption is however, demonstrably false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2387] **viXra:1703.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 11:04:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Length contraction is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers to assign by the Lorentz Transformation, a common definite length to any object in a 'moving system'. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2386] **viXra:1703.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 12:54:38*

**Authors:** Witold Nawrot

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity is almost certainly based on a serious error that led to the unnecessary complication of the model of space-time and practically stopped the development of science for 100 years. The essence of the error is the assumption that the reality looks exactly as we perceive it. Authors of the Theory of Relativity ignored the analysis of the process of observation which may make the observed shape of the reality different from its real shape.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2385] **viXra:1703.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 05:27:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we showed that for a free-fall on neutron black hole (NBH), the relativistic mass is real so synchronization of clocks via the Lorentz Transformation is logically inconsistent. To obtain correct formula for gravitational time dilation, instead of using the Lorentz Transformation, we must start from the law of conservation of spin. Near and inside the Schwarzschild surface the gravitating grainy Einstein spacetime (ES) inspirals towards the centre of NBH (the ES leaks from NBH via the NBH jets). It causes that near the Schwarzschild surface down to the surface of NBH (its equatorial radius is two times smaller than the Schwarzschild radius) the time dilation does not follow from pure radial motions but from orbital motions as well. We showed that time practically stops when vector sum of orbital and radial velocities of freely falling body is close to the velocity of light in “vacuum” c. Due to the inspiralling ES, the trajectory of the body is deflected from the radial direction but trajectories of a freely falling initially radial photon and the body do not overlap. The inspiralling ES causes that for a distant observer, the radial speed on the Schwarzschild surface of a freely falling body is lower than c. For radii smaller than the equatorial radius of NBH, time is going as in frame of reference in the absolute rest - it follows from the fact that inside NBH both NBH and ES have the same angular velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2384] **viXra:1703.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 05:38:13*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** Pages.

In 1900, A. Poincare discussed the Problem about two inertial observers that exchanged by light signals. In 1905 A. Einstein gave solution this problem in the form of the Lorentz transformations.
From the point of view of Similarity theory the Lorentz transformations are Similarity transformations. Moreover, according this theory can be another solutions of the Poincare problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2383] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 15:32:03*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Our universe probably began as a production of the "Multiverse", which is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or rational) equivalent of "God". The "given" physical constants which cannot be otherwise derived have their origins in the Multiverse. All else can be explained through considerations of conservation of energy and symmetry (Noether's Theorem).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2382] **viXra:1703.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 05:36:36*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Time dilation is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a 'stationary system' of observers K to assign a definite time to any 'event' relative to a 'moving system' k using the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2381] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 08:48:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formula for relativistic mass on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2380] **viXra:1703.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 04:56:09*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An observed two-dimensional shadow might encompass more information than its corresponding three-dimensional object. By changing the orientation of a three-dimensional object or the observer’s position, we detect different shadows from diverse perspectives, therefore increasing our available information. Starting from this simple observation and extending it to the Einstein’s four-dimensional spacetime and to Bekenstein and Hawking equations, we show how, in terms of special and general relativity, information content is not a stationary and fixed quantity as currently believed, but rather depends on the observer’s standpoint. This has deep implications in digital physics, information theory, computer vision, shape theory and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2379] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 23:24:27*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity employs both clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both the Theory of Relativity fails. Clock synchronisation is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Since the possibility of clock synchronisation is essential to physics, the Lorentz Transformation is not. The Theory of Relativity is invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2378] **viXra:1703.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:40:57*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A mechanism of originating and forming of the inclination of the rotation plane of the planets (bodies) in the space systems of planetary type is considered. The inclination of the rotation plane is formed by resonant oscillations of planets (bodies) along the direction of motion of planetary systems. The resonant oscillations are a natural condition of all cosmic formations of planetary type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2377] **viXra:1703.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:49:41*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Continuous attempts to create theories of the Moon's motion have been made since the time of Isaac Newton.
The theory of the Moon's motion which would take into account the influence of the Sun, Earth and other planets proved to be one of the most complicated tasks in astronomy.
In this article, a physical model of the lunar motion built on the basis of the statements of the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems" is presented.
It is shown that the Moon's motion is formed by a complex combination of the gravitational attraction from the Earth and the Sun, acting on the Moon in the direction of the planetary system's motion.
In accordance with the physical model presented, a calculation of the Moon's motion is performed.
The results of the calculations of the Moon's motion in the field of mutual interaction of the Earth, Sun, and Moon, agree with the motion observed and confirm the Theory of Lunar Motion set forth here.
Any quantity of bodies (planets) affecting the Moon's motion could be included in the the calculations.
The results of the calculations verify the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2376] **viXra:1703.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 15:11:29*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Essay submitted to Fundamental Questions Institute (FQXi) 2017 Essay Contest

Human ideas of how life and consciousness relate to mathematics and physics are conditioned by the fact that we have lived our lives on a 5.97 x 10^24 kg ball of matter. These ideas would arguably be different if we had evolved instead inside a large rotating world far from astronomical bodies. Contemplating the latter perspective provides some insight on how prevailing views may be in error and how to correct them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2375] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 14:15:34*

**Authors:** M.B.Cilek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All rights reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. It is also concluded that any spatially isolated lump of matter in freefall creates a unique frame of reference around itself by gravitation, and carries it along.
This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2374] **viXra:1703.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 10:02:07*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Einstein's time dilation and length contraction in his Special Theory of Relativity are, in general, inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2373] **viXra:1702.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-28 15:33:33*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: It has been about 10 months since I updated the cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory. Since the last update I have included supersymmetric top quark-antiquark effects and effects linking new cosmological data such as that of supermassive black holes, M-sigma galaxies, galaxies with "bars", and gamma annihilation radiation from the center of our galaxy

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2372] **viXra:1702.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-26 02:37:04*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a result of the submission of non-collinear relativistic boosts, apart from the resultant boost, a component of turn is obtained which is called the Thomas-Wigner rotation. The paper discusses the Lorentz transformation using the paravector calculus. It has been shown that any Lorentz rotation is a combination of real boost and an Euclidean rotation, and that as a result of the submission of appropriately selected boosts any object can rotate in place, which may indicate the fallacy of the idea of the Lorentz rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2371] **viXra:1702.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-23 06:53:57*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The relativity of simultaneity of the analogue of the Fourier law of thermodynamic

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2370] **viXra:1702.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-22 05:21:44*

**Authors:** Viktor D Krasnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. in Russia

This paper reviews origination and forming mechanism of rotation plane inclination of the planets (objects) as part of planetary type space systems. Inclination of rotation plane is originated and formed by resonance vibrations of planets (objects) toward the motion of planetary systems. Resonance vibrations are natural state of all planetary type space formations. Reviewed mechanism of origination and forming of planet vibration toward planetary system motion is the Law for any planetary system. // Рассмотрен механизм возникновения и формирования наклона плоскости вращения планет (объектов) в составе космических систем планетарного типа. Наклон плоскости вращения возникает и формируется резонирующими колебаниями планет (объектов) в направлении движения планетарных систем. Резонирующие колебания являются естественным состоянием всех космических образований планетарного типа. Рассмотренный механизм возникновения и формирования колебательного движения планеты в направлении движения планетарной системы является Законом для любых планетарных систем.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2369] **viXra:1702.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-21 07:08:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages. preliminary version, comments welcome

It is extremely unlikely that global warming is caused by humans,
rather it appears to have a gravitational origin.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2368] **viXra:1702.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-20 23:49:52*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The cause of electromagnetic radiation is generally believed to be due to an accelerating charge. However, physicists have also been aware of the inadequacy of this theory and have long been troubled to explain the different phenomena of electromagnetic radiation. This is not to say that accelerating charges never radiate, but to point out that the accelerating charge view does not always hold. Other attempts at alternative explanations have been made by physicists. For example, one idea is that it is the rate of change of acceleration, not acceleration, that causes radiation and radiation reaction. All existing mainstream and alternative theories have failed to reveal the principle behind all radiation phenomenon. What is the basic law of nature that underlies all radiation phenomenon ? This paper reveals a profound law of electromagnetic radiation, which we may call Steady State theory of electromagnetic radiation and motion. The proposed principle underlying all radiation phenomenon is that electromagnetic radiation occurs during the transient period of motion of a charge and ceases when the moving charge reaches steady state condition. The assumption that an accelerated charge always radiates is wrong. The Steady State theory also explains the apparently unrelated phenomenon of stability of planetary orbits. The planetary orbits are so stable because they have reached steady state condition after millions of years of transient, unstable, oscillatory motions. This paper reveals the subtle difference between inertial motion and steady state motion, and proposes to replace the former with the latter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2367] **viXra:1702.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 10:42:32*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Sergey Ershkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

In this paper, we will solve 2Riccati ODEs using Maxima computer algebra package with applications in: (a) generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation, (b) cosmology problem. The results presented below deserve further investigations in particular for comparison with existing analytical solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2366] **viXra:1702.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 15:18:24*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we examine maximum proper velocity (sometimes referred to as celerity), based on the recently suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass, as given by Haug. Proper velocity, is a quantity that has been suggested for use in a series of calculations in relativity theory. Current standard theory imposes no limit on how close to infinity the proper velocity for an object with mass can be. Under our extended theory, by contrast, there is a strict upper limit on the proper velocity for anything with rest mass, which again is directly related to our newly suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2365] **viXra:1702.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:31:57*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Like Maxwell has shown, the idea of an intrinsic gravitational energy surrounding masses is not viable to explain gravity, because that would lead to incredibly large energies. This falsifies the need for a non-linear general gravity theory such as the general relativity theory, and confirms the validity of Heaviside’s linear gravity theory, gravitomagnetism, known as the “weak-field approximation”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2364] **viXra:1702.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:51:18*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we analyze the validity of the common belief in modern science that an intrinsic time dilatation would exist, i.e. that time effectively dilates with speed and not just the ticking rate of the clocks that measure it. I start from the Special Relativity theory and I analyze if it is theoretically possible to obtain an intrinsic time dilatation. Furthermore, I analyze the context of the Hafele–Keating experiment, which used atomic clocks and the Special Relativity theory to calculate the time rates. Finally, I analyze what is at the origin of the time dilatations that are measured in atomic clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2363] **viXra:1702.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 05:12:21*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's method of synchronising clocks in his Special Theory of Relativity is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2362] **viXra:1702.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 07:22:32*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this very elementary article, we try to show that the universe would be static, flat and infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2361] **viXra:1702.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 16:12:01*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

I have been working for a long time about basic laws which direct existence, and some mathematical problems which are waited for a solution. I can count myself lucky that I could did some important inferences during this time, and I published them in a few papers partially as some propositions. This work aimed to explain and discuss these inferences all together by relating them one another being physical phenomenons are prior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2360] **viXra:1702.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 11:20:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fibre (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2359] **viXra:1702.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 03:02:44*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Relativity Theories are based on the concept of spacetime, which has no physical meaning. The theories are partial, applicable only to limited areas, and remain a stumbling block for the unification of physics. Here I show that an alternate concept, 'energy is motion, and force is reaction to motion', can explain all phenomena that are now being explained using Relativity Theories. This renders the tests for Relativity theories irrelevant. The alternate concept is physically meaningful and is applicable to all areas from particle level to cosmic level. So I conclude that the Relativity theories, which were in vogue for a century, can now be discarded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2358] **viXra:1702.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 15:23:55*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In his paper entitled A New Perspective on Advanced Space Travel, the author dealt briefly with the so called gravitational ‘constant’ in the range , 0 ≤G ≤Go where G represents a variable gravitational ‘constant’, and Go represents the usual Newtonian gravitational ‘constant’ value. The scale dealt with was the sub-nuclear level regarding the weak interaction: hardly a range at which gravity can be measured, yet a close approximation to the Fermi constant was derived based upon a variable G in the weak interaction. It is, however, the belief of the author that the universe operates quite differently in the range of 0 ≤G ≤Go as opposed to the range G ≥0 .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2357] **viXra:1702.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 16:48:55*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Some aspects of the future of humankind are considered based on applications of the quantum modification of general relativity. Particularly, the energy supply from the vacuum and a new form of communication are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2356] **viXra:1702.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 04:47:46*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, a paradox resulted from the relativistic mass increase with speed was presented and analyzed. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed was introduced. Here in this article, one more paradox of relativistic mass increase with speed is presented which is conflict with the principle of relativity. There are no solutions for this contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2355] **viXra:1702.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 04:23:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Why do objects possess inertia at all ? What is gravity ? Why are inertial and gravitational masses equal ? These are some of the greatest puzzles and mysteries in physics that have not been solved to date. This paper reveals these mysteries. Inertia and electrical inductance are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electromagnetism ! Electrostatic force and gravitational force are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electrostatics ! Both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an object, i.e. the total (NOT net ) charge in the object. This is the fundamental reason why inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal. Universal speed limit is due to non-linear law of electrical self inductance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2354] **viXra:1702.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 07:00:12*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 86 Pages. this paper links the Broeck developments for the Alcubierre warp drive to the Natario warp drive

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.Some years ago in $1999$ Chris Van Den Broeck appeared with
a very interesting idea.Broeck proposed a warp bubble with a large
internal radius able to accommodate a ship inside while having a
submicroscopic outer radius and a submicroscopic contact external
surface in order to better avoid the collisions against the
interstellar matter.The Broeck spacetime distortion have the shape
of a bottle with $200$ meters of inner diameter able to
accommodate a spaceship inside the bottle but the bottleneck
possesses a very small outer radius with only $10^{-15}$ meters
$100$ billion time smaller than a millimeter therefore reducing
the probabilities of collisions against large objects in
interstellar space.In this work we apply the Broeck idea to the
Natario warp drive spacetime but out bottle have $200$ kilometers
of inner size $1000$ times the size of the original Broeck bottle
and we use the original Alcubierre shape function to generate our
version of the Broeck bottle with very low energy density
requirements.The Broeck idea is more than welcome and solves
definitively the problem of the collisions against large objects.
Any future development for the Natario warp drive must encompass
the Broeck bottle and this approach must be named as the
Natario-Broeck warp drive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2353] **viXra:1702.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 09:53:39*

**Authors:** Paul E. Loehr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The concepts of modern physics concerning light, gravitation and particles seem to be precisely confirmed by observation and are well founded in complex and sophisticated theories - the more experiments the more confirmation. But, as unbelievable as it may sound for every scientist, two simple experiments are able to shatter the basics of modern physics. These decisive tests are aberration experiments using laser beams whereof the most important doesn't need any other means than a blank sheet, a pencil and pure logic. The conclusions to be drawn disprove fundamental theories and force us to rethink our concepts of light, gravitation, and particles. The acceptance of the implications presented here poses less a logical but far more a psychological challenge. This issue, if managed successfully, will lead to realistic physics that probably opens the path to quantum gravity too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2352] **viXra:1702.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 04:54:58*

**Authors:** Victor D, Krasnov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russia

Attempts to create the theory of the Moon's motion take place since the time of Isaac Newton. The Theory of the Moon's Motion, which considers the impact of the Earth, the Sun and other planets, is proved to be one of the most difficult issues in astronomy. The Article describes the physical model of the Moon’s motion based on the provisions of "the full law of motion for the objects of planetary systems".
It is shown that the Moon’s motion is formed by the complex combination of gravitational attraction components of the Earth and the Sun, having an impact on the Moon in accordance with the motion of the planetary system. The calculation of the Moon's motion is made in view of represented physical model. The results related to the calculation of the Moon’s motion, in case of the interaction of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon, are in keeping with the observed motion, and also confirm the Theory of the Moon's Motion. The calculation can include any number of objects (planets) that have an impact on the Moon’s motion. All calculation results verify "the full law of motion for the objects of planetary systems".
//Попытки создания теории движения Луны не прекращаются со времён И. Ньютона. Теория движения Луны, учитывающая влияние Земли, Солнца и других планет оказалась одной из самых сложных задач астрономии. В статье представлена физическая модель движения Луны, построенная на положениях «Полного закона движения объектов в составе систем планетарного типа».
Показано, что движение Луны формируется сложным сочетанием действия гравитационных составляющих притяжения Земли и Солнца, действующих на Луну в направлении движения планетарной системы. Выполнен расчёт движения Луны в соответствии с представленной физической моделью. Результаты расчёта движения Луны при взаимодействии Земли, Солнца и Луны, согласуются с наблюдаемым движением и подтверждают представленную теорию движения Луны. В расчёт может быть включено любое количество объектов (планет), оказывающих влияние на движение Луны. Результаты расчёта верифицируют «Полный закон движения объектов в составе систем планетарного типа».

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2351] **viXra:1702.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 01:20:56*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The article seeks to define and analyze work in the context of General Relativity. The definition of work in General Relativity as considered with this article is an extrapolation of what we have in Special Relativity.This definition as brought out in this paper takes into account the involvement of the curvature effects into the definition of work. The paper also considers the weak field limit of work in relation to Schwarzschild’s Geometry. In the classical limit of weak space time curvature our definition produces the classical energy conservation formula: the sum of potential and kinetic energy as defined classically is conserved when Schwarzschild geometry is treated in the weak field limit with our definition of work.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2350] **viXra:1702.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 02:01:35*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also successfully explains the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer Anomaly. Gravity is a force that behaves differently at vastly different distance scales: nuclear and atomic scale, macroscopic scale and astronomical scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2349] **viXra:1702.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 02:03:22*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 89 Pages. The original ideas published in reputable journals

We derive the Poincar´e model of the Lobachevsky geometry from the Fermat
principle. The Lobachevsky geometry is interpreted as the
Lobachevsky-Beltrami-Fok velocity space geometry of moving particles. The relation
of this geometry to the decay of the neutral π-meson is considered. The
generalization of the Lobachevsky geometry is performed and the new angle of
parallelism is derived. Then, we determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate
systems which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion.
The maximal acceleration limit follows from the kinematic origin. Maximal acceleration
is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We derive the
dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, on acceleration as an analogue
phenomena in special theory of relativity. We apply the derived nonlinear
Lorentz group to the so called Thomas precession. The total quantum energy loss
of binary is caused by the production of gravitons emitted by the rotation motion of
binary. We have calculated it in the framework of the Schwinger theory of gravity
for the situation where the gravitational propagator involves radiative corrections.
We also derive the finite-temperature gravitational Cherenkov radiation involving
radiative corrections. The graviton action in vacuum is generalized for the medium
with the constant gravitational index of refraction. From this generalized action
the power spectral formula of the Cherenkov radiation of gravitons is derived in
the framework of the Schwinger theory at zero and nonzero temperature. The next
text deals with non-relativistic quantum energy shift of H-atom electrons due to Gibbons-Hawking thermal bath. The seventh chapter deals with gravity as the
deformation of the space time and it involves the light deflection by the screw dislocation.
In conclusion, we consider the scientific and technological meaning and the
perspectives of the results derived. Some parts of the complex are published in the
reputable journals.
1

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2348] **viXra:1702.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-01 11:27:44*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Dark energy -mc^2 relative mass closely matches the relative mass of 6 top quarks: this indicates complete annihilation of the top quarks negative mass to dark radiation which we call dark energy had occurred before the big bang: this left Briggs fermions as the only possible source of matter to our new universe after the big bang, and this source, transferring matter from the previous universe only, had no antimatter to give either.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2347] **viXra:1702.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-01 01:57:32*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Galaxies (or anything) cannot be repelled.

What is actually happening is there is more pull / gravity coming from a normal area region NA

NA ~~~~~~~~ MG ~~~~~~~~ VOID

Milky Way Galaxy MG is NOT repelled by the Void -- it is pulled towards the Normal amount of galaxies NA. That is the way gravity works even at large scales -- stuff pulls together

MG will be drawn towards NA because the VOID has no large masses in it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2346] **viXra:1701.0689 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 12:19:59*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 63 Pages. accepted to be published in "Foundations of Physics"

The main foundations of the standard $\Lambda $CDM model of cosmology are that: 1) The redshifts of the galaxies are due to the expansion of the Universe plus peculiar motions; 2) The cosmic microwave background radiation and its anisotropies derive from the high energy
primordial Universe when matter and radiation became decoupled; 3) The abundance pattern of the light elements is explained in terms of primordial nucleosynthesis; and 4) The formation and evolution of galaxies can be explained only in terms of gravitation within a inflation+dark matter+dark energy scenario. Numerous tests have been carried out on these ideas and, although the standard model works pretty well in fitting many observations, there are also many data that present apparent caveats to be understood with it. In this paper, I offer a review of these tests and problems, as well as some examples of alternative models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2345] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 12:42:41*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's radial distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2344] **viXra:1701.0678 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 01:22:05*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This paper has been submitted to BAOJ Physics journal

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence is abound. However, such an acoustic model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework from the notion of space, cancer therapy up to the sky. This paper may be the first attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on classical wave equation of sound. It is argued that one can arrived a consistent description of space, elementary particles, Sachs-Wolfe acoustic theorem, up to a novel approach for cancer therapy, starting from this simple classical wave equation of sound. We also discuss a plausible extension of Acoustic Sachs-Wolfe theorem based on its analogue with Klein-Gordon equation to become Acoustic Sachs-Wolfe-Christianto-Smarandache-Umniyati (ASWoCSU) equation. It is our hope that the new proposed equation can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2343] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 04:47:19*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 1 in Spanish & Version 2 in English.

This article presents an invariant formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2342] **viXra:1701.0667 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-30 09:49:39*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Singularity problem is a long-standing weak point in the theory of general relativity. Most scholars assume that the solution for this singularity consists in quantum mechanics. However, waiting for quantum gravity theory to be completed to solve the singularity problem in a black hole is wrong. Hear we show that gravitational self-energy has a negative value can solve singularity problem and rescue general relativity. Black hole does not have a singularity and there exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within the black hole. Also, gravitational self-energy and R_{gs} guarantee uniform density due to repulsive gravity effect and this can be grounds for the expansion in the early universe and the uniform universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2341] **viXra:1701.0643 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:12:43*

**Authors:** Victor D. Krasnov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The existing laws that describe planetary motion fail to predict and explain the presence of rotational plane inclination and the angle of inclination of this plane. These laws also fail to explain planetary rotation in one plane and how planetary motion in the direction of planetary system movement affects orbital parameters. It has been found that planetary motion in the direction of planetary system motion under the effect of the star's attraction gravitational component occurs as cyclic oscillations (motion with cyclically changing speed). A planet's cyclic oscillations form the visible declination observed in the system of coordinates of the planetary system, the rotational plane inclination and the inclination angle. The results obtained demonstrate the new understanding of the mechanisms that form the orbits of planets, and show the decisive role in this process of the star's attraction gravitational component, which acts in the direction of planetary system motion. The results are new and are the complete law of motion of objects within planetary type systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2340] **viXra:1701.0641 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:41:02*

**Authors:** Victor D, Krasnov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russia

The existing laws that describe planetary motion fail to predict and explain the presence of rotational plane inclination and the angle of inclination of this plane. These laws also fail to explain planetary rotation in one plane and how planetary motion in the direction of planetary system movement affects orbital parameters. It has been found that planetary motion in the direction of planetary system motion under the effect of the star's attraction gravitational component occurs as cyclic oscillations (motion with cyclically changing speed). A planet's cyclic oscillations form the visible declination observed in the system of coordinates of the planetary system, the rotational plane inclination and the inclination angle. The results obtained demonstrate the new understanding of the mechanisms that form the orbits of planets, and show the decisive role in this process of the star's attraction gravitational component, which acts in the direction of planetary system motion. The results are new and are the complete law of motion of objects within planetary type systems.//
Существующие законы, описывающие движение планет, не предсказывают и не объясняют наличие наклона плоскости вращения и величину угла наклона этой плоскости. Не объясняют вращение планет в одной плоскости. Не объясняют, какое влияние на параметры орбит оказывает движение планет в направлении движения планетарной системы.
В процессе исследования установлено, что движение планет в направлении движения планетарной системы (в направлении движения звезды), происходит в виде циклических колебаний, формируемых под воздействием гравитационной составляющей притяжения звезды.
Показано, что циклические колебания планеты в направлении движения планетарной системы формируют наблюдаемое склонение и наблюдаемый в системе координат планетарной системы наклон плоскости вращения.
Выполнены расчёты, подтверждающие физическую модель формирования орбит.
Полученные результаты углубляют знания о механизмах формирующих орбиты планет, показывают решающую роль в этом процессе гравитационной составляющей притяжения звезды, действующей в направлении движения планетарной системы. Полученные результаты не противоречат законам И. Кеплера и И. Ньютона, являются их дальнейшим развитием.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2339] **viXra:1701.0640 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:44:22*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Can we apply Kepler’s Laws to the motion of stars of a galaxy?
Is it true that luminous matter contains the total galaxy’s mass?
When we observe galaxies, we see interstellar gas, dust and stars which is called luminous matter.
In 1922, a German astronomer, Jacobus Kapteyn was the first who suggested that dark matter exists.
In 1933, A Bulgarian-American astronomer, Fritz Zwicky, explained the reason for existence of dark matter. He realized that gravitational lensing would provide the means for the most direct determination of the mass of very large galactic clusters of galaxies, including dark matter. [1].
Gravitational lensing is the consequence of Einstein’s general relativity. It was first observed in 1919, when an apparent angular shift of the Mercury close to the solar limb was measured during a solar eclipse and it was a strong proof for Einstein’s theory.
Astronomers measure the total mass of a galaxy by Kepler’s laws (especially the law of periods) [2].
〖 T〗^2=(4π^2)/GM a^3 (1)
α: per Astronomical Unit
M: per Solar Mass
First of all, luminous matter is not equally distributed in galaxy because astronomers while evaluating the spectrums of stars of galaxy, found that stars of galaxy have different masses.
Also based on Kepler’s law of areas, stars located closer to the center of black hole should have more orbital velocity than stars located further from center of galaxy but based on the Doppler Effect, when astronomers found out the orbital velocity of both stars by analyzing the absorption lines in spectrum of them, both were the same in orbital velocity [3].
We come to this conclusion that there should be a matter which is not luminous (because it doesn’t have any electromagnetic interaction) that let this phenomenon take place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2338] **viXra:1701.0636 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-27 07:50:44*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Very recent studies of halos around galaxies found them to be much more extensive than previous studies indicated, and that they have enormous mass consisting of gas and dust from supernovas, SNs. The results of these studies and a recent study of SN rate of occurrence can be used to determine age, and for the Milky Way the result is roughly six trillion years with a conservative preliminary calculation. Other strong evidence exists as well which indicates a great age, yet it is truly a wonder any of this will shake up or change current beliefs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2337] **viXra:1701.0631 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-26 19:11:25*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated with time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also shown that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleon vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion years. It is concluded then that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2336] **viXra:1701.0629 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-27 00:13:53*

**Authors:** Ryan C. Rankin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Using the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe as a background metric, purely
General relativistic (classical) scalar metric perturbations are investigated for small bodies. For the
approximation of a point-like perturbing mass in the closed FLRW universe, the scalar perturbation
may be written in a form obeying precisely the Dirac equation up to a factor playing the role
of Planck’s constant. A physical interpretation suggests the scalar perturbation in this form is the
wavefunction of quantum mechanics. Such an interpretation indicates the nonlocality of gravitational energy/momentum in General relativity leads naturally to the indeterminacy of quantum
mechanics. Some physical consequences and predictions are discussed and briefly explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2335] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-25 14:24:48*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2334] **viXra:1701.0589 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-24 19:51:57*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In space-matter model both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. Time is
the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. The action-reaction motions of space and
matter must be synchronized. The synchronization of these motions needs algorithms of both
sides; matter and space must have algorithms. Space cannot be defined without matter. Space is
what matter uses as space. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. The relation of space and matter cannot be created if the amount of information of space and matter cannot
maintain the relationship of space and matter.
In space-matter model solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance,
time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be
converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Saying this, we must realize that there is a surprising gateway between space and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2333] **viXra:1701.0575 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-23 09:09:10*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Following some earlier work by Antoci and Abrams, Crothers has spent at least the past decade arguing the mathematical impossibility of the black hole. Following a brief review of the mathematical argument, a physical one is presented, based on analysis of the ‘irresistible force’ of increasing gravity allegedly collapsing a neutron star with an even greater ‘immovable object’ of increasing density into a black hole. This physical argument supports Crothers’, et al., contention that a black hole is both a mathematical as well as physical impossibility.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2332] **viXra:1701.0565 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 02:59:14*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmossin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have modified the standard Einstein field equations by introducing a general function that depends on Ricci’s scalar without prior assumption of the mathematical form of the function. By demanding that the covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor should vanish and with application of Bianchi identity a first order ordinary differential equation in the Ricci’s scalar has emerged. By integrating the resulting equation a constant of integration resulting from solving the equation is interpreted as the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein.
The form of function on Ricci’s scalar and on the cosmological constant corresponds to the form of Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian appearing in the action integral.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2331] **viXra:1701.0561 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 14:30:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: As part of the production of 8-fold composite particles of life in the epoch before the big bang, top quarks and their anti-quarks were produced in large numbers. After disruption of the composite entities (Briggs fermibosons) the freed top quark particles met and annihilated (in active quasars) early in the present epoch. This annihilation was not complete, due to CP violation,however, resulting in the universe without antimatter we see today

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2330] **viXra:1701.0557 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 05:17:20*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Based on the NCU concept presented earlier, this article describes and calculates a historical scenario for the development of the universe without “Dark Energy” but caused by an average excess of unneutralized protons (pn). This historical scenario consists of the following steps:
Starting with one initial quantum fluctuation, a “Primordial Nucleus” is formed from protons generated by further quantum fluctuations. Based on Mach’s principle, the nucleus is held together due to the very high gravitational constant which is given because of the tiny mass the nucleus contains in the beginning.
The more pn are condensed in the nucleus, the lower G becomes according to Mach’s principle. So, a turning point is reached, and beyond that point the nucleus explodes at a speedof almost c. This event plays the role of the “Big Bang” in the NCU scenario.
Caused by the extremely high acceleration experienced by the pn, they form an expanding hollow sphere and thereby generate our known 3D space. During the expansion, additional pn are steadily imported from fluctuations at the horizon.
Because of the steadily impacting Coulomb acceleration, all pn collect more and more
energy, which is converted into relativistic mass growth, and finally that mass is transformed into stable particles, i.e. protons and electrons - the known neutral matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2329] **viXra:1701.0551 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-20 04:29:57*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Since 1905, when Einstein introduced the Special Relativity Theory, various researchers independently observed that his theory contains at least one more postulate besides the two postulates stated by him explicitly. Putting together all those observations about the different additional postulates, we will describe here how the Special Relativity Theory was unfortunately based on nineteen postulates, and how most of them were implied and used in Einstein's 1905 article, later in his article of 1910, and also further in his manuscript written between 1912 and 1914.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2328] **viXra:1701.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 12:56:31*

**Authors:** Thomas Görnitz

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Based on the simplest possible quantum structures, that is, the abstract free-of-meaning quan-tum information (AQI) bits establishing the fundamental substance referred to as protyposis, it is shown, using just three plausible postulates, how a cosmological model can be derived that describes the observation data better than the „flat ΛCDM“ standard model. The postulates are the Planck relation, E = hc/λ, the existence of a distinguished velocity, i.e. the velocity of light in vacuum, and the first law of thermodynamics. Assumptions concerning inexplicable fictitious entities, such as „inflation“ or „dark energy“ can be dispensed with. The model solves „cosmolog-ical problems“.
Einstein’s equations result by requiring that the cosmic relation between the radius of curvature and the energy density can be transferred to local density variations within the cosmos. General Relativity is shown up as a classical approximation of the quantum cosmology. Therefore the relations are clarified in principle that happen between quantum theory and gravity theory.
The AQI concept allows for a simple derivation of black hole entropies and, moreover, establish-es a rationalization of the gauge groups associated with the three fundamental forces. Relati-vistic particles with and without rest mass can be constructed from the AQI bits, and, thus, all objects described in natural sciences. In living beings, the AQI can manifest both in the material body and in meaningful quantum information of the psyche, eventually closing the „explanatory gap“ between „body and mind“.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2327] **viXra:1701.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 23:40:30*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Concerning the paradox of magnetic interaction between two parallel moving charged particle beams, there are a lot of discussions. Here in this paper, an experimental design is proposed, by which we can verify if there is really a magnetic interaction between the two charged particle beams.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2326] **viXra:1701.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 10:10:27*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Please contact Gene Barbee genebarbee@msn.com

Abstract:
The cosmic web is a filament like structure that connects galaxies. It has been imaged by gravitational lensing and is thought to be composed mainly of dark matter since it is not visible in the electromagnetic spectrum. There are computer simulations of the web showing that galaxies are often nodes for multiple branches. View the simulations at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivymdduulFU. WMAP, PLANCK and other background radiation anisotropy teams have concluded that dark matter is 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. Scientists are trying to identify dark matter and the unexpected web like structure adds to the list of cosmology unknowns.
This document proposes that dark matter consists of neutron waves or neutrons (wave/particle duality) contained by a gravitational field. Dark matter density would be the same as normal matter density but neutron waves might have a radius of only 1.53e-15 meters (the wavelength of a neutron). This means it could be very elongated (e.g. 5e16 meters). It may coil into a small volume unless stretched by gravity. The neutron/waves location in the long filament is probabilistic but it contains 939 MeV/filament (1.675e-27 Kg). A diffuse structure and the absence of electromagnetic features will make it difficult to detect. Originally dark and normal matter is mixed and both fall into massive structures like galaxies over time. The residual dark matter probably forms aligned stretched filaments we see as the cosmic web. It would attract some normal matter and be gravitationally stretched between galaxies. Dark matter has only gravitational interactions. As it moves into galaxies it forms halos and explains anomalous galactic velocity observations.
The author will present a re-analysis of the baryon/photon ratio (critical to residual deuterium abundance data) and will review that WMAP data that lead scientists to conclude that dark matter was 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. A detailed model from matter equality to decoupling will be presented. The features of interest are the waves that cause temperature variations in the background radiation. A model that predicts the temperature of the hot spots will be presented. Based on re-analysis of limiting considerations it will be shown that half of all matter is baryons and the other half is dark matter.
Most scientists use a time ratio to predict expansion; i.e. R=R0*(time/time0)^(2/3). The author developed fundamental equations that allow expansion to be modeled with forces and energy. Surprisingly, very little energy is required to produce late stage expansion of free protons. A proposal for dark energy was proposed based on this understanding.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2325] **viXra:1701.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-13 09:07:07*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Mistakes are found in the theoretical derivation process, during which the magnetic force is explained to be the relativistic side effect of Coulomb force. As a result, some serious paradoxes will be inevitable if we accept the notion that Magnetism is a Relativistic side eﬀect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2324] **viXra:1701.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-12 07:47:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 15 Pages, 17 Figures, 3 Tables

This paper was presented at the 2016 SSE European conference in Sweden, and addresses two fundamental areas of physics and cosmology that involve a “universal consciousness”. (a) It shows where Einstein was incorrect: it is not only possible to communicate information faster than the speed of light, but this can be instantaneous. (b) The main challenge in physics today is unifying quantum theory with gravity: it is demonstrated that the extended mind is involved in solving this problem.
The author has spent over 30 years researching the mind’s interaction with the laws of physics, subtle fields, and the cosmos. This has been achieved by quantifying sensed data and discovering formulae and universal constants. A technique, developed by the author, involving a singularity is explained for noetically studying subtle fields and abstract geometry. This has produced some ground-breaking and fundamental findings, demonstrating that the mind is very sensitive to geometry and both local and astronomical forces.
The most exciting aspects are the quantified results and graphs that have been obtained from a specified subtle energy beam length (L) measured over the last eight years. For example, during the course of a day a sinusoidal curve is obtained with maxima at sunset and minima at sunrise, even if measurements are made in a darkened room on a cloudy day.
Another example is that the mind can detect a lower gravitational force on Earth, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in opposite directions at full moon, resulting in a peak in L. Likewise, a higher gravitational force, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in the same direction at new moon, results in counter-intuitive shorter lengths of L.
The mind also detects changes in the Newtonian gravitational force, Fg, as the earth orbits the sun. Over the course of a year, a plot of L produces an equation L=6E+105*Fg -δ which has a very high correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9745. The power index is Feigenbaum’s constant within 0.013% error. This is another example of the mind’s ability to interact with gravity and produce a universal constant, suggesting that consciousness is intimately connected to the fabric of the universe and chaos theory.
Any three objects in alignment, be they 3 grains of sand, three trees, 3 coins, 3 stones, three abstract circles drawn on paper, or even three objects in the solar system all form a strong subtle energy beam that experimentally has been perceived to extend endlessly. In particular, this beam has been measured during alignments across the solar system. These have included eclipses of the sun and moon, to a transit of Neptune by the moon. The data was analysed weeks after the events. In all cases L peaked before the predicted time of the occlusion. This time was always identical to the time it takes light to reach an observer on earth from the furthest of the 3 planets in alignment, on the day of the experiment This demonstrates that the mind can communicate not only faster than light, but instantaneously across the solar system, and the structure of the universe is such to enable this to happen. It also suggests that macro entanglement is possible.
The findings in this paper significantly impact cosmology, and in particular show that Inflation Theory just after the big bang is unnecessary to explain the current structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2323] **viXra:1701.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 16:08:20*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward.
For quantum mechanics the special version of the theory for translational inertial motion predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe.
The general version of the theory for gravitational and electrostatic fields, also detailed in the paper, is shown to be successful in predicting and explaining the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2322] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-07 04:17:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3].
An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper.
This paper is Classified!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2321] **viXra:1701.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 08:58:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper discusses the similarities between Einstein’s length contraction and the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction. The FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction was originally derived for only the case of a frame moving relative to the ether frame, and not for two moving frames. When extending the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation to any two frames, we will clearly see that it is different than the Einstein length contraction. Under the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation we get both length contraction and length expansion, and non-reciprocality, while under Einstein’s special relativity theory we have only length contraction and reciprocality. However, we show that there is a mathematical and logical link between the two methods of measuring length.
This paper shows that the Einstein length contraction can be derived from assuming an anisotropic one-way speed of light. Further, we show that that the reciprocality for length contraction under special relativity is an apparent reciprocality due to Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization. The Einstein length contraction is real in the sense that the predictions are correct when measured with Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. Still we will claim that there likely is a deeper and more fundamental reality that is better described with the extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor framework, which, in the special case of using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchonized clocks gives Einstein’s length contraction. The extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction is also about length expansion, and it is not recipro- cal between frames. Still, when using Einstein synchronized clocks the length contraction is apparently reciprocal. An enduring, open question concerns whether or not it is possible to measure the one-way speed of light without relying on Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization or slow clock transportation synchronization, and if the one-way speed of light then is anisotropic or isotropic. Several experiments performed and published claim to have found an anisotropic one-way speed of light. These experiments have been ignored or ridiculed, but in our view they should be repeated and investigated further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2320] **viXra:1701.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 20:44:19*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 53 Pages. relevant also to quantum mechanics

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward. For quantum mechanics the theory predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom, the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe. Extensions of the theory to accounting for the gravitational and electrostatic fields are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2319] **viXra:1701.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 01:09:15*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Space is a three-dimensional extent; matter also has three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter.
Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space used by a given matter. Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find that there are different spaces in the tunneling, where the same matter has different velocities. These velocities can be greater than c; their value depends on the amount of information that the given space contains.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2318] **viXra:1701.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 08:37:24*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

From Einstein's theory of relativistic we obtain a formula relating the acceleration and the time derivative of the momentum. The formula includes the speed of light. The metric, according to general relativity, and changes in the gravitational field and with time. Since changing the metric, changing the way the distance measurement. Since changing a method of measuring distances in various small local areas, then in every such local area of the speed of light is negligible differs from the speed of light in a different local area, if this speed is measured in units of certain third local area (eg, the area with the observer). Therefore, the interaction will be different on the attraction and repulsion. From this is derived the inertia of a body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2317] **viXra:1701.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 21:17:15*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Galactic black holes were created during the Big Bang. As such, they were available for clustering in the early Universe. This paper describes the
role these clusters could play in explaining dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1551] **viXra:1703.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-26 10:13:01*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Through a new variant of the Langevin’s twin thought experiment, we show that the difference
in their age is just what offer Lorentz transformations as a “tempting” appearance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1550] **viXra:1703.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-26 11:23:34*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Because the Einstein equation can't by itself determine the gravitational metric-tensor field, it is important to attempt to explicitly formulate the coordinate condition corresponding to the coordinates which observational and empirical physical scientists would naturally use in the presence of gravitation. Coordinate conditions can't be generally covariant, but since it has been demonstrated that the Einstein equation can be derived in a purely special-relativistic context, they almost certainly should be restricted to being Lorentz-covariant. Since Minkowski coordinates are the natural coordinate choice when gravitation is absent, coordinate conditions should be satisfied identically by the Minkowski tensor. Finally, one would prefer to eschew coordinate conditions which for the Schwarzschild solution produce a physically unnatural closed shell of positive radius where the time-dilation factor is infinite. Among the widely used coordinate conditions, only the so-called "harmonic" contracted affine-connection coordinate condition is Lorentz covariant, but it produces a positive Schwarzschild radius. The only alternate way to contract the affine connection corresponds to fixing the metric tensor's determinant to its -1 Minkowski value, and allows the Schwarzschild radius to be zero. Although other coordinate conditions also produce zero Schwarzschild radius, the Minkowski-determinant coordinate condition is the only Lorentz-covariant one so far found to do so.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1549] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-27 14:52:23*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. References added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest an evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1548] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-24 13:28:35*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Text added and typos (hardly all) corrected. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest a hypothetical evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1547] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-23 18:54:29*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Typos corrected, text expanded.

It seems possible to suggest a hypothetical evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1546] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-23 07:36:53*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

abstract:shows a veiwpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1545] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-20 12:15:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1544] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-18 11:22:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1543] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-17 06:48:56*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1542] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-26 19:08:48*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. large postscript added

Our universe probably began as an offshoot or "bud" of the "Multiverse"; the latter, as usually envisioned, is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or "rational") substitute for typical metaphysical notions of "God". The "given" physical constants of our universe which cannot be derived from first principles (such as the value of "velocity c"), find their origins quite naturally in the Multiverse. All else (in the abiotic realm) can be explained through general considerations of energy and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), or, in the biotic realm, by Darwin's Theory. It is to be noted that in a truly infinite Multiverse (or one that is otherwise "sufficiently large"), difficulties associated with probability/improbability and time (or lack thereof) simply do not apply. The only limitations that would seem to restrict productions from the Multiverse are due to certain conservation laws (Energy, Entropy, Charge, Causality, etc.).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1541] **viXra:1703.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 04:25:54*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Time dilation is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a 'clock-synchronised stationary system' of observers K to assign a definite time to any 'event' relative to a 'moving system' k using the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1540] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 06:16:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1539] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-12 05:22:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1538] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-11 13:06:30*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1537] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-11 06:24:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the General-Theory-of-Relativity (GR) formula for gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1536] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-10 12:29:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Here we showed the origin of the SR reciprocation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1535] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-16 09:58:27*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists since Einstein have assumed that a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is consistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Without both, the Theory of Relativity fails. Herein I assure a stationary system of observers by mathematical construction and then prove that a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1534] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 11:06:34*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity employs both a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both the Theory of Relativity fails. A system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. The Theory of Relativity is therefore invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1533] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 07:05:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity employs both clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both the Theory of Relativity fails. Clock synchronisation is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. The Theory of Relativity is therefore invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1532] **viXra:1703.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-17 16:10:15*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Fixed subscripts in Eq. (4). Other minor changes.

Human ideas of how life and consciousness relate to mathematics and physics are conditioned by the fact that we have lived our lives on a 5.97 x 10^24 kg ball of matter. These ideas would arguably be different if we had evolved instead inside a large rotating world far from astronomical bodies. Contemplating the latter perspective provides some insight on how prevailing views may be in error and how to correct them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1531] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 09:40:26*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are essentially left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1530] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 07:58:17*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are essentially left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1529] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-04 03:52:10*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1528] **viXra:1703.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 23:45:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein's method of synchronising clocks in his Special Theory of Relativity is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation, despite the latter being a fundamental component of his theory. This inconsistency subverts the very foundations of Special Relativity because it follows that Einstein's time dilation and length contraction are also quite generally inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Moreover, clock synchronisation is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation are mutually exclusive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1527] **viXra:1702.0314 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 12:01:39*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a result of the superposition of non-collinear relativistic velocities, apart from the resultant velocity, a component of turn is obtained which is called the Thomas-Wigner rotation. The paper discusses the Lorentz transformation using the paravector calculus. It has been shown that any Lorentz rotation is a combination of real velocity and a Euclidean rotation, and that as a result of the superposition of appropriately selected velocities any object can rotate in place, which may indicate the fallacy of the idea of the Lorentz rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1526] **viXra:1702.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-20 05:48:26*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we examine maximum proper velocity (sometimes referred to as celerity), based on the recently
suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass, as given by Haug. Proper velocity is a quantity that has been suggested for use in a series of calculations in relativity theory.
Current standard theory imposes no limit on how close to infinity the proper velocity for an object with mass can be. Under our extended theory, by contrast, there is a strict upper limit on the proper velocity for anything with rest mass, which again is directly related to our newly suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1525] **viXra:1702.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-21 05:33:55*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Why do objects possess inertia at all ? What is gravity ? Why are inertial and gravitational masses equal ? These are some of the great puzzles and mysteries in physics that have not been really solved to date. This paper reveals these mysteries. Inertia and electrical self- inductance are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electromagnetism ! Inertia is 'self-inductance' or electromagnetic radiation reaction. Electrostatic force and gravitational force are not only analogous, but they are basically the same phenomena: electrostatics. Both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an object, i.e. the total (NOT net ) charge in the object. This is the fundamental reason why inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal. Universal speed limit is due to non-linear law of self- inductance or radiation reaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1524] **viXra:1702.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-14 03:47:06*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Why do objects possess inertia at all ? What is gravity ? Why are inertial and gravitational masses equal ? These are some of the greatest puzzles and mysteries in physics that have not been really solved to date. This paper reveals these mysteries. Inertia and electrical self- inductance are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electromagnetism ! Inertia is 'self-inductance' or electromagnetic radiation reaction. Electrostatic force and gravitational force are not only analogous, but they are basically the same phenomena: electrostatics. Both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an object, i.e. the total (NOT net ) charge in the object. This is the fundamental reason why inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal. Universal speed limit is due to non-linear law of self- inductance or radiation resistance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1523] **viXra:1702.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-21 22:58:23*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also has the potential to explain the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer anomaly. Gravity is a force that behaves differently at vastly different distance scales: nuclear scale, macroscopic scale and astronomical scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1522] **viXra:1702.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 02:55:39*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also has the potential to explain the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer anomaly. Gravity is a force that behaves differently at vastly different distance scales: nuclear and atomic scale, macroscopic scale and astronomical scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1521] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-03 22:45:38*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1520] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 08:10:32*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1519] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 06:22:04*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1518] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-01 18:13:37*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1517] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-21 02:29:18*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 8 in English.

This article presents an invariant formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1516] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-19 13:59:09*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 7 in Spanish.

This article presents an invariant formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1515] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-09 08:15:41*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 6 in English.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1514] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-08 19:35:18*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 5 in Spanish.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1513] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-04 06:37:29*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 4 in English.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1512] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 10:38:33*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 3 in Spanish.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1511] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-31 05:45:02*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 2 in English.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1510] **viXra:1701.0636 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-28 08:51:07*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Very recent studies of halos around galaxies found them to be much more extensive than previous studies indicated, and that they have enormous mass consisting of gas and dust from supernovas, SNs. The results of these studies and a recent study of SN rate of occurrence can be used to determine age, and for the Milky Way the result is roughly six trillion years with a conservative preliminary calculation. Other strong evidence exists as well which indicates a great age, yet it is truly a wonder any of this will shake up or change current beliefs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1509] **viXra:1701.0631 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-03 08:56:47*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 21 Pages. I corrected more the grammar and included an equation that I had forgotten.

A new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle may have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated throughout time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also proposed that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleon vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion years. The origin of quasars is explained and the evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated. The large mass at the center of quasar PDS 456 is calculated and agrees in order of magnitude with that attributed to a supposed black hole. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1508] **viXra:1701.0631 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-23 16:46:51*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 21 Pages. I replaced because I added two more references and corrected a reference number

A new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle may have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated throughout time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also proposed that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleon vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion years. The origin of quasars is explained and the evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated. The large mass at the center of quasar PDS 456 is calculated and agrees in order of magnitude with that attributed to a supposed black hole. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1507] **viXra:1701.0631 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 18:53:49*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated with time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also shown that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleon vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion years. The origin of quasars is explained and the evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1506] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-20 17:17:40*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.
An analytical solution is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1505] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-26 17:20:20*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes. An analytical solution is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1504] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-14 10:24:26*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.
An analytical solution is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1503] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 09:10:26*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1502] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 15:54:02*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1501] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 11:12:37*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1500] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-04 13:51:14*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1499] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-04 11:54:45*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Metaballs to Model the Pre-Ringdown Phase of the Merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild Black Holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1498] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-03 13:14:10*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Metaballs to Model the Pre-Ringdown Phase of the Merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild Black Holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1497] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-01 14:45:40*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1496] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-30 15:46:03*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1495] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-29 16:31:00*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1494] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-28 09:09:36*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1493] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-27 14:38:55*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1492] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-25 18:25:57*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1491] **viXra:1701.0589 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-25 14:51:55*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In space-matter model both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. The action-reaction motions of space and matter must be synchronized. The synchronization of these motions needs algorithms of both sides; matter and space must have algorithms. Space cannot be defined without matter. Space is what matter uses as space. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. The relation of space and matter cannot be created if the amount of information of space and matter cannot maintain the relationship of space and matter.
In space-matter model solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Saying this, we must realize that there is a surprising gateway between space and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1490] **viXra:1701.0551 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 23:03:27*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Version 2

Since 1905, when Einstein introduced the Special Relativity Theory, various researchers independently observed that his theory contains at least one more postulate besides the two postulates stated by him explicitly. Putting together all those observations about the different additional postulates, we will describe here how the Special Relativity Theory was unfortunately based on nineteen postulates, and how most of them were implied and used in Einstein's 1905 article, later in his article of 1910, and also further in his manuscript written between 1912 and 1914.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1489] **viXra:1701.0503 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-06 21:33:19*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Please contact gene at genebarbee@msn.com

The cosmic web is a filament like structure that connects galaxies. It has been imaged by gravitational lensing and is thought to be composed mainly of dark matter since it is not visible in the electromagnetic spectrum. There are computer simulations of the web showing that galaxies are often nodes for multiple branches. View the simulations at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivymdduulFU. WMAP, PLANCK and other background radiation anisotropy teams have concluded that dark matter is 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. Scientists are trying to identify dark matter and the unexpected web like structure adds to the list of cosmology unknowns.
This document proposes that dark matter consists of neutron waves or neutrons (wave/particle duality) contained by a gravitational field. Dark matter density would be the same as normal matter density but neutron waves might have a radius of only 1.53e-15 meters (the wavelength of a neutron). This means it could be very elongated (e.g. 5e16 meters). It may coil into a small volume unless stretched by gravity. The neutron/waves location in the long filament is probabilistic but it contains 939 MeV/filament (1.675e-27 Kg). A diffuse structure and the absence of electromagnetic features will make it difficult to detect. Originally dark and normal matter is mixed and both fall into massive structures like galaxies over time. The residual dark matter probably forms aligned filaments we see as the cosmic web. It would attract some normal matter and be gravitationally stretched between galaxies. Dark matter has only gravitational interactions. As it moves into galaxies it forms halos and explains anomalous galactic velocity observations.
The author will present a re-analysis of the baryon/photon ratio (critical to residual deuterium abundance data) and will review that WMAP data that lead scientists to conclude that dark matter was 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. A detailed model from matter equality to decoupling will be presented. The features of interest are the waves that cause temperature variations in the background radiation. A model that predicts the temperature of the hot spots will be presented. Based on re-analysis of limiting considerations it will be shown that half of all matter is baryons and the other half is dark matter.
Most

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1488] **viXra:1701.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-27 06:12:42*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 17 pages, 17 Figures,7 Tables

Abstract
This paper addresses two fundamental areas of physics and cosmology that involve a “universal consciousness”. (a) It shows where Einstein was incorrect: it is not only possible to communicate information faster than the speed of light, but this can be instantaneous. (b) The main challenge in physics today is unifying quantum theory with gravity: in this paper it is demonstrated that the extended mind is involved in solving this problem.
I have spent over 30 years researching the mind’s interaction with the laws of physics, subtle fields, and the cosmos. This has been achieved by quantifying sensed data and discovering formulae and universal constants. A technique, I have developed, involving a singularity is explained for noetically studying subtle fields and abstract geometry. This has produced some ground-breaking and fundamental findings, demonstrating that the mind is very sensitive to geometry and both local and astronomical forces.
The most exciting aspects are the quantified results and graphs that have been obtained from a specified subtle energy beam length (L) measured over the last eight years. For example, during the course of a day, a sinusoidal curve is obtained with maxima at sunset and minima at sunrise, even if measurements are made in a darkened room on a cloudy day.
Another example is that the mind can detect a lower gravitational force on Earth, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in opposite directions at full moon, resulting in a peak in L. Likewise, a higher gravitational force, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in the same direction at new moon, results in counter-intuitive shorter lengths of L.
The mind also detects changes in the Newtonian gravitational force, Fg, as the earth orbits the sun. Over the course of a year, a plot of L produces an equation L=6E+105*Fg -δ which has a very high correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9745. The power index is Feigenbaum’s constant within 0.013% error. This is another example of the mind’s ability to interact with gravity and produce a universal constant, suggesting that consciousness is intimately connected to the fabric of the universe and chaos theory.
Any three objects in alignment, be they 3 grains of sand, 3 trees, 3 coins, 3 stones, 3 abstract circles drawn on paper, or even 3 objects in the solar system all form a strong subtle energy beam that experimentally has been perceived to extend endlessly. In particular, this beam has been measured during alignments across the solar system. These have included eclipses of the sun and moon, to a transit of Neptune by the moon. The data was analysed weeks after the events. In all cases L peaked before the predicted time of the occlusion. This time was always identical to the time it takes light to reach an observer on earth from the furthest of the 3 planets in alignment, on the day of the experiment This demonstrates that the mind can communicate not only faster than light, but instantaneously across the solar system, and the structure of the universe is such to enable this to happen. It also suggests that macro entanglement is possible.
The findings in this paper significantly impact cosmology, and in particular show that Inflation Theory just after the big bang, is unnecessary to explain the current structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1487] **viXra:1701.0289 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 03:42:17*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Space is a three-dimensional extent; matter also has three spatial dimensions. Time is the
result of the action-reaction of space and matter.
Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out
of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space used by a given matter.
Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find that there are different
spaces (cp. tunneling), where the same matter has different velocities. These velocities can be
greater than c; their value depends on the amount of information that the given space contains.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1486] **viXra:1701.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-04 22:30:59*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Galactic black holes were created during the Big Bang. As such, they were
available for clustering in the early Universe. This paper describes the
role these clusters could play in explaining dark matter, and it answers the
following question: What is the energy source for the extremely hot gas
found in galactic clusters?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology